Finnish Museum of Natural History
Spring 2011 of Jukka the Osprey
Jukka's migration route:
NB! All times are given in GMT. The difference to e.g. Finland is –2 hours and Finnish summer time –3 hours. The readings are marked on the Google Earth map in order (P1, etc.).
At 8 in the morning, Jukka was still in his home territory, the delta of the river that empties into the southwest end of Lake Lagdo. Three hours later, he was flying 58 km per hour at an altitude of 775 metres, 18 km north of his wintering territory. Soon after 14 o'clock, Jukka crossed the border to Nigeria and stopped for the night after covering 228 km during that day. In spring 2010, Jukka started his return trip to Finland three days earlier than this year.
The occasional speeds measured by the satellite at 8, 11 and 14 were 48, 45, and 55 km per hour.. In the six hours between 8 and 14, Jukka covered 228 km as the crow flies, i.e. he averaged 38 km per hour. In 24 hours, he travelled a total of 309 kilometres.
According to the fix at 11 o'clock, Jukka had continued towards the northwest. For the night, he had made it to Algeria, to the southernmost edge of the Ahaggar national park. (See Google Earth for amazing images from this area.) Jukka's migration progressed 266 km this day.
On April Fool's Day, Jukka flew a total of 303 km. At first, he continued to the northwest, but after noon he turned to the northeast again. For the night, Jukka stopped at the northern edge of the Ahaggar national park.
Jukka headed almost due north. At 11 o'clock, Jukka was flying at a point only 25 kilometres east of where the satellite discovered him on 29 March 2010. After that, his route changed. In spring 2010, Jukka continued to the northeast, and did not turn to the north until he was in the vicinity of the boundary between Algiers, Tunisia and Libya. This spring, however, Jukka kept to his northern course and, after covering 392 km this day, ended up in the northwest corner of the Tassili n'Ajjer national park for the night. At this stage, the distance Jukka would have to cover to reach the Mediterranean would be either 1,080 km due north to the coast of Algiers or 840 km to the northeast to the coast of Tunisia or Libya.
This day, Jukka continued 451 km somewhat straight to the north, and stopped in the middle of the desert for the night.
At 8 o'clock (10 local time), Jukka was still at his stopover place. After that, his journey continued in a wide curve towards the north. A fix at 22 local time showed that, after a day's journey of 460 km, Jukka had stopped in northern Algiers at a place 80 km southwest of the city of Batna.
The first fix of the morning, at 01 local time, came from the same place as the previous evening, but the fixes at 04 and 07 local time showed that Jukka had had to move twice during the early morning, first 30 and then five kilometres. After that, he set out for a long and apparently uninterrupted flight that took him to the coast of the Gulf of Tunis, continuing directly to cross the Mediterranean. According to all the six fixes between 10 and 01 (local time), Jukka was in flight at an occasional speed of 26-59 km per hour in an east-northeasterly direction. At 22, Jukka passed the city of Tunis, at 01 he was right over the Mediterranean to the northeast of Isola di Pantelleria, and at 04 he was finally coming in to land on the coast of Sicily, four kilometres from the city of Palma di Montechiaro. In 21 hours, Jukka covered a total of 775 kilometres. It is fairly surprising that, after covering 457 km already, Jukka continued flying through the night for 318 km to cross the Mediterranean!
The next three fixes arrived from Calabria, 286 km from the coast of Sicily, during the night between the 6 th and 7 th.
The first fix of the day came at noon local time, when Jukka was flying at an elevation of 1,087 m and a speed of 56 km per hour at the western coast of the Adriatic, near Manfredonia. Three hours later, he was flying over the Adriatic, and at 18 local time, Jukka passed the city of Split on the coast of Croatia. He stopped for the night at a little village called Kanjane. After Calabria, Jukka had progressed 580 km.
Jukka covered 275 km during this day, flying to the north, and stopped for the night in northern Croatia, near the Hungarian border.
So far, no fixes.
After a long wait the fixes showed that Jukka had reached Hungary an the north end of the Balaton lake by evening.
After flying 228 k during this day, Jukka stopped overnight in the north of Slovakia.
So far, no GPS fixes.
Fixes from the west of Cracow show us that Jukka only had progressed some hundred kilometres in two days.
Jukka covered 184 km this day, and he stopped for the night in some woods 85 km southwest of Warsaw.
This morning, Jukka was still in the vicinity of Warsaw. During the day, he continued 247 km through the northeast of Poland, and settled for the night some 80 km from the border to Lithuania.
At 5 o'clock local time, Jukka was still at his stopover place. After covering 255 km during this day, he found his new overnight location some 50 km from the Latvian border.
The satellite witnessed Jukka's final spurt that didn't quite carry to the end. At 7 o'clock local time, Jukka was already travelling some 60 km from the Latvian border, which he crossed two hours later. The flight to the northernmost part of Kurland, officially called Kolka (Livonian), took over four hours. From there, he continued his flight to Saarenmaa in the Gulf of Riga, passing to the east of Kuresaar and Leisi. Then he continued across the eastern part of Hiidenmaa, to the east of Käina and Kärdla. At 17 local time, Jukka had already started crossing the inlet to the Gulf of Finland, and he passed Karjalohja two hours later. His seemingly uninterrupted 570-km and 14-hour flight ended by 21 o'clock on the isthmus between Sotkajärvi and Pukarojärvi lakes, only some 40 km from his home base. All seven fixes received at two-hour intervals really showed Jukka in flight; according to the momentary measurements he was flying at a speed of 31-69 km per hour at an elevation of 132-751 metres.
Since 7 am (local summertime), the satellite showed Jukka staying close to his natural nest. However, the Osprey Foundation agent Juhani Koivu managed to photograph Jukka at the Pohtiolampi Osprey centre pool at 15:20. The satellite, on its part, did not manage to place Jukka at the Pohtiolampi Osprey centre at all.
Summary of Jukka's spring 2011 migration
This time, Jukka spent a total of 26 days on his spring migration, covering 7,328 kilometres, so his average speed was 282 km per day. The previous year, the numbers were 23 days, 6,898 kilometres, and 300 km per day. Jukka covered the 4,029 km stretch of desert from Cameroon to Tunisia in ten days, making an average speed of 403 km per 24 hours. The second leg of his journey, the 3,299 km across Europe, took 16 days, averaging only 206 km per day. Compared to spring 2010, Jukka was six days 'late,' what with starting three days later than last year and taking another three days longer to cross Europe.
Jukka's two autumn and two spring migrations show us the difference between autumn and spring migrations: in the autumn, there is time to take it slow and refuel for the migration over the Mediterranean and Sahara. In spring, however, you have to hurry to defend your territory and keep an eye on your partner.
After this, "Summer 2011" started for Jukka.