Finnish Museum of Natural History

Bird monitoring

Abundance and distribution of birds

The distribution of bird species has been studied in three atlas surveys. The newest, third atlas was conducted in 2006-10, the second one during 1986-89 and the first one 1974-79. The abundances of bird populations can be studied based on eg. winter bird counts and line-transect censuse of breeding birds.

The comparison between the two first and the third atlases has revealed that many species have expanded their distribution. These species include such as Marsh Harrier, Greenfinch and Blue Tit. On the other hand, the distribution has markedly contracted on many species such as Willow Grouse, Ruff and Ortolan Bunting. The changes in distribution are caused by increase or decrease of bird populations that may be due to e.g. habitat changes in breeding, wintering or migrational stop-over grounds or - for example - changes in hunting activity. Climate change plays an important role in distribution changes. Global warming makes it possible for southern species to expand their range northwards, and at the same time, the potential distribution area of northern species contracts.

Climate change, birds and monitoring schemes

The ongoing climate chane (global warming) is a hot topic in the world of research. The long term data collected in various bird monitoring schemes are extremely useful in the research of impacts of climate change. The ongoing studies include e.g. how changing climate affect the abundance and distribution of birds and their conservation status. Many other monitoring data sources are used as well, e.g. bird migration data from Hanko Bird Observatory and annual seed crop data from the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Majority of bird census work is volunteer based that is greatly acknowledged by the monitoring scheme. The Finnish bird monitoring scheme has many national and international study projects. The monitoring data is used for example in the European Bird Census Council's (EBCC) various projects, e.g. in the assessment  of Pan-European Common Bird Indices. The Ministry of Environment supports the bird monitoring and the monitoring is performed in collaboration with BirdLife Finland. In case you are interested on collaboration, please contact the bird monitoring scheme.

Birds, environment and human impact

Many human activites affect the abundance and distribution of birds. For example, winter feeding may benefit several bird species, and, on the other hand, human-induced habitat changes may have huge adverse effects on some species. Changes in land-use and other human induced habitat changes are actively studied at LUOMUS. Bird indicators have been developed to increase our knowledge on how species typical for some habitat type do. For example, a general decrease of farmland birds indicates that the quality of farmland habitats for birds has decreased. These indicators can be found on the web page.

Bird conservation and endangered species

A good knwledge of population development is among the most essential things in nature conservation. Using this knowledge the resources available for conservation can be allocated to the species that need immediate conservational activities. The Red List of Finnish Species is an essential tool in conservation. This list is conducted in every ca. ten years. The data from bird monitoring is the most important source for evaluation of endangerdness of bird species. The newest Red List was published in 2010, and according to its results 24,5 % of 241 species breeding in Finland are endangered. Bird monitoring data can be used in the evaluation whether conservation management has been succesful or not. To enhance the conservation of migrants, knowledge on migration based on ringing and e.g. satellite transmitters is needed.


Newest results and reports based on bird monitoring

Winter Bird Census | Participate!


Feeding site survey | Participate!


Water Bird Census | Participate!


Monitoring of raptors and osprey survey | Participate!

Raptor monitoring results and statistics

Osprey survey results and statistics

Osprey reports:

  • Saurola, P. 2012. Suomen sääkset 2011 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) 2011). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2011: 16-23.
  • Saurola, P. 2009: Suomen sääkset 2008 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) 2008). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2008: 22-27.
  • Saurola, P. 2008: Suomen sääkset 2007 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) 2007). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2007: 18-25.
  • Saurola, P. 2007: Suomen sääkset 2006 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) 2006. — Linnut-vuosikirja 2006: 24-27.
  • Saurola, P. 2006: Suomen sääkset 2005 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus 2005). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2005: 23-26.
  • Saurola, P. 2005: Suomen sääkset 2004 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus 2004). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2004: 20-27.
  • Saurola, P. 2004: Suomen sääkset 2003 - seuranta jatkui ja siirtoistutus alkoi (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus 2003). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2003: 8-13.
  • Saurola, P. 2003: Suomen sääkset – tarkastustyö jatkui tehokkaana (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in 2002). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2002: 20-23.
  • Saurola, P. 2002: Suomen sääkset 2001: reviirien tarkastusta ja satelliittiseurantaa (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in 2001). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2001: 4-9.
  • Saurola, P. 2001: Suomen sääkset 2000 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in 2000). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2000: 29-33.
  • Saurola, P. 1999: Suomen sääkset 1999 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in 1999). — Linnut-vuosikirja 1999: 8-12.
  • Saurola, P. 1998: Suomen sääkset 1998 (Summary: Finnish Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in 1998). — Linnut-vuosikirja 1998: 31-37.


Constant Effort Site Scheme | Read more!

  • Piha, M. & Haapala, J. 2012: Sisämaan seurantapyynti: kannankehitys ja poikastuottoindeksit 19872011. — Linnut-vuosikirja 2011: 82–87.
  • Piha, M. & Haapala, J. 2010: Sisämaan seurantapyynti: kannankehitys- ja poikastuottoindeksit 1987-2009. — Linnut-vuosikirja 2009: 112-117.
  • Piha, M. V., Valkama, J., Väisänen, R. A. & Saurola, P. L. 2009: Comparison of population indices derived from the Finnish Constant Effort Site and National Bird Monitoring Scheme data. — Avocetta 33:131-136.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Valkama, J. 2008: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2007 - sateet piinasivat rengastajia ja verottivat pesintöjä (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2007). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2007: 80-85.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Valkama, J. 2007: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2006 - pitkä ja ankara talvi harvensi lintukantoja (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2006). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2006: 92-97.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Valkama, J. 2006: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2005 - pajusirkun ja punavarpusen kannat laskussa (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2005). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2005: 47-52.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Valkama, J. 2005: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2004 - pienemmällä aikuismäärällä enemmän poikasia (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2004). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2004: 57-62.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Valkama, J. 2004: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2003 - poikastuotto jäi keskinkertaiseksi (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2003). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2003: 73-78.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Valkama, J. 2003: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2002 - pesinnät onnistuivat erinomaisesti (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2002). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2002: 98-102.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Saurola, P. 2002: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2001 - aikuislintujen pyyntimäärät romahtivat (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2001). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2001: 75-80.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Saurola, P. 2001: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 2000 - alituiset sateet heikensivät pesimistulosta (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 2000). — Linnut-vuosikirja 2000: 75-81.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Saurola, P. 1999: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 1999 - sää suosi pesintöjä (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 1999). — Linnut-vuosikirja 1999: 57-66.
  • Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Saurola, P. 1998: Sisämaan seurantapyynti 1997-1998 (Summary: Constant Effort Ringing in Finland in 1998). — Linnut-vuosikirja 1998: 64-69.


Rengastus | Participate!

Bird ringing main page >>

Ringing results and statistics


Breeding Bird survey (point and transect-line counts) | Participate!

Point count results and statistics


Nest record scheme | Participate!

Results and statistics from nest record scheme


Satellite tracked birds and other locator based studies


Bird Atlas | Participate!


Person in charge of the page: 
Markus Piha