Lutukan vuosikerrat 2011–
- Vuosikerta 34 (2018)
- Vuosikerta 33 (2017)
- Vuosikerta 32 (2016)
- Vuosikerta 31 (2015)
- Vuosikerta 30 (2014)
- Vuosikerta 29 (2013)
- Vuosikerta 28 (2012)
- Vuosikerta 27 (2011)
Summaries (in English)
Jutila, H. 2018: Porin Preiviikinlahden saariston kasvillisuudesta. – Lutukka 34(2): 35–53.
Vegetation of the islands of Preiviikinlahti Bay, Pori, W coast of Finland
The vegetation of Preiviikinlahti Bay at Pori (prov. Satakunta) was studied on 45 islands and islets from 1991 to 2017. The bedrock in the area is mainly Jotnian sandstone (formed 1300 million years ago) with a belt of younger diabase (appr. 1270–1260 mya). The soil in the area is mainly till. The whole of Preiviikinlahti Bay belongs to the Natura 2000 network and some parts of it to the Sea of Bothnia National Park. The rate of land-uplift is ca 7 mm/year. Some islands have previously been grazed by sheep, but this practice is continued only on Julukari. In addition, cattle have access to a few islets near Hevoskari and Kumpeli. There are only a few summer cottages on these islands.
The average vascular plant species number per visit and the cumulative species number of all the visits were recorded for each island. The size, length of the shoreline, distance from the mainland and elevation were measured for each island. This paper focuses on the medium-sized and large islands; the complete data set is published in Jutila (2017). The highest, oldest and largest island is Kallioluoto, which was found to possess 246 species. The total number of species in all the studied islands was 326. Species numbers correlate strongly with island size and elevation, which indicates the geological age of the islands on this coast subject to land-uplift. The number of species increases immediately as elevation rises above the mean sea level.
The Preiviikinlahti archipelago contains diverse habitats from shores to dry meadows, heaths, forests and peatlands. Sea-level fluctuation and the soil parent material are defining factors for the vegetation. The shores of the islands are typically till with open vegetation. Deschampsia bottnica grows at water level, and slightly above it Lysimachia maritima and Argentina anserina dominate the geolittoral vegetation. Increasingly fine-grained parent material diversifies the flora with Centaurium pulchellum, C. littorale, Plantago maritima, Agrostis stolonifera and Juncus gerardii as typical species. The upper part of the geolittoral is often dominated by Lythrum salicaria, Filipendula ulmaria, Rhinanthus angustifolius and Parnassia palustris. The algae accumulation zone is dominated by tall herbs. In the epilittoral zone, nutrient-poor dry meadow is common, dominated by Galium verum, Fragaria vesca, Silene nutans, Sagina nodosa and Filipendula ulmaria.
On bird islets such as Harmaat, Rhinanthus angustifolius and Valeriana sambucifolia subsp. salina expand their ranges to the epilittoral. Sparsely vegetated stone and boulder shores are characterized by Silene uniflora and Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis on Ykspihlava, Kloppa, Munakari, Katava, Puskuuri and Truutholma. Sandy beaches on Kallioluoto, Santakari, Ykspihlava and Mustakari are characterized by Honckenya peploides and Cakile maritima in the geolittoral, and Empetrum nigrum, Festuca ovina and Hieracium umbellatum in the epilittoral. The open shore area is delimited by Hippophaë rhamnoides and Rosa rugosa thickets.
Nutrient-poor, dry-heath vegetation is found on medium-sized islands such as Puolivälinkari and Puskuuri. The heaths are Deschampsia flexuosa – Cladina – Empetrum nigrum type. On larger islands the succession has progressed and heaths have closed up to form juniper thickets. By contrast, small islets do not provide enough shelter for the heath vegetation to develop.
Black alders typically form the first tree zone facing the sea. Mesic, herb-rich black-alder forests are formed on fine-grained, nutrient-rich and flat land, e.g. on Outoori. On larger islands succession leads first to mesic, bilberry-dominated pine forests and later to spruce-dominated forests.
Archipelago peatlands can be found only on Kallioluoto. Bogs are small, mesotrophic patches of open mire in rock depressions with Carex rostrata, C. vesicaria and Comarum palustre as dominants, and Drosera rotundifolia as a characteristic species.
Kurtto, A. & Helynranta, L. 2018: Helsingin kasveja 8. Kahden vuosikymmenen täydennyksiä alkuperäislajistoon. – Lutukka 34(2): 56–63.
Vascular plants of Helsinki 8. Additions to the native flora since 1998
Submersed aquatic plants of deep water are especially problematic in floristic mapping. Consequently, Zostera marina was confirmed as a resident member of the flora of Helsinki as late as in the first years of the 21st century, though drifting shoots of the species had been detected on shores of the city annually long before. The same inventories made by experts in diving also returned Ruppia cirrhosa to the extant flora of Helsinki. Of the shore plants, Ranunculus lingua has apparently been present on a shore of an inner bay of Helsinki already for long, but was not detected by us in the field work in the 1990s due to the dense vegetation cover and restrictions of the site (nature reserve). Sium latifolium and Euphorbia palustris were found on seashores of Helsinki for the very first time in the 2010s, but only as single plants and thus possibly remaining casual. Epilobium obscurum, a threatened species in Finland, was discovered in 2017 as a rather abundant ditch plant in northern Helsinki. Its historical status, whether native (apophytic) or alien, remains obscure. Lathyrus linifolius and Brachypodium pinnatum were added to the extant native forest flora of Helsinki in the 2010s, but the latter perhaps disappeared soon after its discovery. A large stand of Dryopteris dilatata, accompanied by Dryopteris expansa and hybrids between the two species, was discovered in northwestern Helsinki in 2015. There is only one earlier record of Dryopteris. dilatata from Helsinki, a single plant seen by us in the early 1990s.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 34(2): 53–55.
Summaries (in English)
Ihamuotila, R. 2018: Outoja vieraita mäntykankaalla. – Lutukka 34(1): 3–5.
Peculiar flora on verges of a forest road
The flora on the verges of a newly built forest road was observed in 2016–17 in Espoo, S Finland (Uusimaa), in an area with fairly dry pine forest and bare rock outcrops. A peculiar combination of alien introductions, escapes from cultivation and species of luxuriant forests was found. The source of the flora was in soil spread along the road banks in 2015, the origin of which remains unknown to the author.
Ihantola, A.-R., Similä, M., Eisto, K., Thitz, P. & Räsänen, J. 2018: Lettohernesaraa takaisin vanhoille kasvupaikoille Pohjois-Karjalassa. – Lutukka 34(1): 6–8.
Reintroduction of Carex viridula var. bergrothii to its former habitats in North Karelia (E Finland)
Metsähallitus (National Board of Forestry) reintroduced Carex viridula var. bergrothii to two mires (North Karelia: Lieksa and Ilomantsi) in 2015. Tussocks, plantlets and ripe seeds were collected from an abundant population in an old soapstone quarry in Juuka. Before planting, the old ditches (draining the rich fen) in the mire of Lieksa were filled with peat. The reintroduction has been successful so far at the Lieksa site (majority of plants still alive, plenty of seeds germinated) especially on the bare peat surface. On the other hand, at the Ilomantsi site, seeds did not germinate and the plants are apparently failing to compete against the other vegetation of the site.
Piirainen, M. & Piirainen, P. 2018: Tähtipoimulehti sotatulokkaana Suomussalmella – ensimmäinen tieto lajista Venäjän ulkopuolelta. – Lutukka 34(1): 13–16.
Alchemilla stellaris as a polemochore in Finland – the first record outside Russia
Alchemilla stellaris is endemic to the Volga valley in Central Russia. It has been recently found in the Republic of Karelia, NW Russia, as a rare neophyte. In 2017, the species was found in eastern Finland, Suomussalmi in the biogeographical province of Kainuu as a polemochore brought in by Russian troops during the Finnish-Russian Winter War 1939–40. This is the first record of the species outside Russia.
Alchemilla stellaris is a dark green plant. The lower part of the stem is hairy with patent hairs, the upper part is glabrous. Petioles of the rosette leaves are hairy with patent hairs, but those of the inner ones are often glabrous in their upper part. Leaf blades of the inner leaves are roundish and their basal lobes may touch each other. Leaf lobes are long and often triangular, giving the leaves a star-shaped appearance. Teeth on the lobes number 11–17, and they are obliquely triangular. Leaf lobes of the inner leaves are hairy above only along the wrinkles and close to their margin, below they are glabrous except for the main veins, which are hairy in their upper parts. Pedicels and hypanthia are glabrous.
Kiviniemi, A. & Kouvo, M. 2018: Kotkan Hallan saari – kasvitulokkaiden uskomaton ihmemaa. – Lutukka 34(1): 17–31.
The island of Halla – a paradise of neophytes in the city of Kotka
The island of Halla is located close to the city center of Kotka (South Karelia). The island served first as a Swedish (1791–1808) and then a Russian (1809–1830) fortification. Ballast was unloaded onto the island during the 1800s. The following industrial period included e.g. a sawmill (1876–1986), a terpentine factory (1890–1901) and a pulp mill (1903–1940). Several old polemochores and ballast plants survive on the island. The massive transportation of timber for the sawmill and pulp mill, largely from Russia, seems to be the most important source of alien taxa. After all the industrial activities were closed down, the buildings have gone to rack and ruin and the former open landscape is now becoming overgrown.
The flora of Halla was studied during several excursion to the island in August 2017. In all, 314 vascular species were found. The most interesting rarities on the island include Astragalus glycyphyllos, Briza media, Carex sylvatica, Chaerophyllum aromaticum, Ononis spinosa subsp. arvensis, Pimpinella major, Thalictrum lucidum, Torilis japonica, and Trifolium lupinaster, among others.
The authors suggest that many of the alien species might have come with Russian timber imported from the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, perhaps the area around Narva and east of it, based on the natural distribution of several species found in Halla.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 34(1): 9–12.
Summaries (in English)
Kääntönen, M. 2017: Buurivillakko, isohietasinappi ja muuta kasvistoa Tampereen (EH) Santalahdessa. – Lutukka 33(4): 99–102.
Senecio inaequidens, Diplotaxis tenuifolia and other floristic finds at Santalahti, Tampere (South Häme)
Descurainia sophia, Lotus corniculatus var. sativus and Medicago sativa were found among huge colonies of Chenopodium album from the roadsides of the intersections at the W end of the new road tunnel at Santalahti, Tampere. In addition, e.g. Conyza canadensis and Herniaria glabra had colonized the filling earth area at the shore of Lake Näsijärvi – smaller stands of the latter had been known from the area since 1981. Finds of Senecio inaequidens and Diplotaxis tenuifolia were more surprising. S. inaequidens is a South African species, which has spread in Europe in recent years, but in Finland it has been so far known only from Helsinki and Turku. Probably it has arrived with traffic or construction activities, but the origin is unknown. Several exotic casual aliens were found especially in the 1960s and 1980s along the blind tracks and loading stocks of the paper and cardboard mills at Santalahti, among them Chenopodium acuminatum, Trigonella grandiflora and Rumex marschallianus. The mills are no more working, and the only alien from those years still left in 2017 was Sisymbrium volgense, known in the area since the 1960s.
Koistinen, J. 2017: Vankkasara vanhoilla ja uusilla espoolaisilla kasvupaikoilla (U). – Lutukka 33(4): 103–106.
Old and new records of Carex riparia in Espoo (Uusimaa)
Three out of the four known localities of Carex riparia in Espoo were checked in 2017. The species was still found in or close to each of them. In addition, one new locality was found. It seems that the species can survive also in the urbanized southern parts of the city, where suitable habitats may still be left in some smaller brooks or ditches, which have not been churned up too heavily.
Kiviniemi, A. 2017: Kouvolan (ES) konnantädykkeestä 1930-luvulta tähän päivään. – Lutukka 33(4): 107–111.
Veronica anagallis-aquatica in Kouvola, SE Finland
Veronica anagallis-aquatica is rare in Finland, and most of its localities are known from the Aland Islands. The few records from the mainland are mainly old, and the only established populations have been known from Kouvola (South Savo), in 1930–1999. A new, vigorous, hundreds of meters long population in a ditch system was found in Kouvola in 2017. Also the localities of the previous finds were checked, and the species was found in or close to some of them. It seems possible that the species has spread in Kouvola rather lately, perhaps with earthwork vehicles or excavators.
Räsänen, J. 2017: Minne ovat vesikasvit kadonneet? – Lutukka 33(4): 118–119.
Aquatic plants declining due to improved water quality
The aquatic vascular flora of a small lake in the River Lieksa in North Karelia has experienced changes during the last 60 years. As a beginning the water quality deteriorated due to nutrients released by log floating. After cessation of the floating in 1987 the river has gradually recovered. This has, however, caused declining of the flora as the nutrient content has reduced.
Räsänen, J. 2017: Havaintoja kalliosammalista itäisestä Suomesta vuonna 2016. – Lutukka 33(4): 120–126.
An amateur bryologist’s observations from some rock outcrops in eastern central Finland
Some interesting rock outcrops were visited in the provinces of North Savo and North Karelia in 2016. Bryum algovicum, Hypnum andoi and Schistidium dupretii are reported as new to North Karelia and Pohlia elongata new to North Savo.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 33(4): 112–117.
Summaries (in English)
Saarinen, K., Jantunen, J. & Vitikainen, T. 2017: Seikkailuja Imatran ratapihoilla, elävillä ja kuolleilla. – Lutukka 33(3): 67–79.
Eastern immigrants in railway yards of Imatra, SE Finland
We investigated four railway yards in Imatra near to the eastern border of Finland (biogeographical provinces of South Savo and South Karelia). As timber is imported in large quantities via railways from Russia, we expected to find a set of immigrants of eastern origin at the yards. Unfortunately three of the yards were almost completely dead due to pesticide control in July 2015. The only yard not poisoned, near to Immola airport, was inhabited by Anthyllis vulneraria, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Corynephorus canescens, Geranium sibiricum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Medicago sativa subsp. falcata, Mycelis muralis, Rumex thyrsiflorus and Silene armeria, among others. In July 2016, other three yards were all ”green”, but we noted only a few intriguing immigrant species, such as Nuttallanthus canadensis, Sagina nodosa and Scleranthus perennis. In addition, a short visit to the old plain used for timber storage resulted in new findings of Juncus tenuis and Erigeron annuus subsp. strigosus, both previously unrecorded at the site. In general, the immigrant flora of railway yards and the adjacent environments in Imatra had similar elements to the flora of Voikkaa area in Kouvola, comprehensively reported for the readers of Lutukka in 2015–2017.
Kalleinen, L. 2017: Kainuunnurmihärkin uudet kasvupaikat Paltamossa (Kn). – Lutukka 33(3): 80–84.
New finds of Cerastium fontanum var. kajanense in Kainuu
The serpentine variety Cerastium fontanum var. kajanense of the Common Mouse-ear is reported from three small outcrops of serpentine rock close to the main village of Paltamo (Kainuu). This rare and endangered (EN) variety was earlier known in Finland only in a limited area at the border between Paltamo and the neighbouring town of Kajaani, at a distance of c. 10 km from the new localities. The outcrops were rather heavily weathered and partly covered by serpentine gravel. The plants grew both on rock surfaces and in tractor tracks and ploughed spots of the surrounding forest cut area. The number of specimens was estimated in two of the localities to be c. 13,000, in each. The number is not as high as in the earlier known localities. However, the newly found populations are important for the protection of the variety. The study area is part of a larger serpentine area (Jormua mafic – ultramafic complex). Similar small rock outcrops are widely scattered in the area, and it could be worthwhile checking at least the most promising ones.
Piirainen, M. & Piirainen, P. 2017: Korvakepoimulehti: vanhoja tietoja ja uusi löytö. – Lutukka 33(3): 85–88.
A new find of Alchemilla auriculata from Finland
Alchemilla auriculata originates from the Ural Mountains at the border zone between Europe and Siberia. It has been found from three areas (four localities) in Finland as a polemochore brought in by Russian troops during the Finnish-Russian Winter War 1939–40. It is known from Ilomantsi in 1955 (North Karelia; two adjacent localities), Kuhmo 1963 (Kainuu) and Paltamo 1958–59 (Kainuu). The history of these records is here briefly discussed. The species was found from a new locality in 2017, in a war-time Russian encampment site in Ilomantsi. This rare species, as well as several other polemochorous Alchemilla species, has now survived almost for 80 years after the war, showing remarkable persistency.
Alchemilla auriculata is 30–40 cm tall and dark bluish green. The stems are sparsely hairy with patent hairs below, glabrous in the upper parts. Most of the petioles are also hairy with patent hairs, but the petioles of one or two outer (“spring”) leaves are usually glabrous. The blade is rather dark, slightly dirty bluish green, 5–10 cm long, flat and roundish. It has usually nine lobes with (13–)15–17 rather coarse teeth. Length of the apical lobe is ¼–⅓ of the blade length, and the basal lobes touch each other. The blade is glabrous above (rarely sparsely hairy along the margins); below it is glabrous except for the main veins, which are hairy in their upper half (rarely sparsely hairy on the basal lobes). Petioles of the cauline leaves are short and blades roundish. The inflorescence, pedicels and hypathia are glabrous; flowers are small. (The small auricle-like appendages at the base of the leaf-blades mentioned in the original description, are mostly missing and seem to have no significance.)
Koistinen, J. 2017: Sorsanputki Kirkkonummen Långgrundissa (U). – Lutukka 33(3): 89–90.
Greater Water-parsnip (Sium latifolium) in the Kirkkonummi Archipelago of the Gulf of Finland
Uotila, P. 2017: Huhtakurjenpolven massaesiintymä Kuhmoisissa (EH). – Lutukka 33(3): 91–93.
Exceptionally abundant colony of Geranium bohemicum in Kuhmoinen, Southern Finland
A controlled burning took place in a more than ten hectares wide area of clear-cut forest in Kuhmoinen (biogeographical province of South Häme) in May 2014. During the same summer, a massive colony of Geranium bohemicum raised in the burned area, plants estimated to be thousands. The area was an old refugee for local people during the Great Hate (1713–1721), and they carried on slash-and-burn cultivation there, last in the mid-1800s. Probably the seed bank of G. bohemicum was from that period, i.e. more than 150 years old. In the subsequent years the amount of G. bohemicum plants rapidly decreased: in 2015 there was still open soil with charcoal and ash and hundreds of G. bohemicums, in 2016 some dozens. In 2017 the whole area was covered with dense vegetation of other species, and only two small specimens of G. bohemicum were found.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 33(3): 94–95.
Summaries (in English)
Saarinen, K. 2017: Esko Thurénin kasvijäljillä Imatralla. – Lutukka 33(2): 35–42.
On the plantsteps of Esko Thurén, an amateur botanist in Imatra
During the 1980s and 1990s, Esko Thurén collected thousands of well-prepared plant specimens almost exclusively from the town of Imatra, SE Finland. From a smaller set of duplicates of the collection donated to the South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute in 1990, I chose some rare and interesting species and revisited those 14 locations in the summer of 2016. Only four were still alive, including Avenula pubescens, Veronica filiformis, Inula helenioides and Scolochloa festucacea. Now the samples collected by Esko Thurén are relocated in the Finnish Museum of Natural History (H).
Ryttäri, T. & Reinikainen, M. 2017: Uusi uhanalaisuuden arviointi alkanut – kasvitietoja kaivataan. – Lutukka 33(2): 44–46.
New Red Data Book of Finland in preparation
The Vascular Plant Specialist Group, working under the auspices of the Finnish Environment Institute, has begun the substantial effort to assess the status of vascular plants in Finland. As previously, the criteria developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) will be used in the red-listing process, including some modifications and nationally decided applications. The Finnish Museum of Natural History (Luomus) has created a tool to facilitate the documentation of the assessments. The changes in the taxonomy and nomenclature adopted in the new list of vascular plants of Finland, prepared in the Botanical Museum, will be taken in consideration. The categorization process includes wild populations within their natural range, which comprises taxa that have arrived to Finland by natural migration and are established and reproducing in the area. Also taxa that have been introduced (intentionally or un-intentionally) by humans and naturalized before the year 1800 may be assessed. Specialists and botanical enthusiasts are asked to report information about threatened and near threatened plant populations, including those that have disappeared and reasons for that. The new Red Data Book will be published in the spring 2019.
Hovi, A. 2017: Itäisiä piirteitä Lahden kasvistossa. – Lutukka 33(2): 47–56.
Eastern anthropochore species in Lahti, S Finland, 2008
The vascular flora of the city of Lahti (mainly in the biogeographical province of South Häme, minor parts in Uusimaa) was researched during 2007–2008 by Antti Hovi and Marko Riikonen. Hannu Kämäräinen and Tapio Lahtonen monitored the flora of the tracks for Russian wagons in the railway yard of Lahti in 1999–2010. The results of these studies are compared with Viljo Erkamo’s study of the anthropochore flora of Vyborg (South Karelia / Russia, part of Finland till 1944) in 1942. Erkamo listed 105 species related to Russian influence, 29 of them found already before 1942. Of the Russian species of Erkamo and Vyborg, 26 were found in Lahti at the site of Russian wagons and 37 also elsewhere in the city. Seventeen species found in Lahti belong to the group that were known in Vyborg already before 1942.
These eastern species are often continental and favor light and warm habitats. About 40 species in Lahti are more widely spread eastern species. They are spreading along railroads, especially the old Riihimäki – Lahti – Saint Petersburg railroad and the old Vesijärvi harbor railroad. Part of them are polemochores and found also in the area of old army barracks. Like railroads, eskers and moraine ridges (Salpausselkä) serve as dispersal routes for these eastern species, e.g. Artemisia campestris and Trifolium arvense. Eastern species are found also at landfills in Lahti, as they were in Vyborg of the year 1942. Common species to the landfills of Vyborg 1942 and Lahti 2008 were e.g. Silene noctiflora, Anthemis tinctoria, Helianthus tuberosus and Papaver somniferum. The importance of grain mill areas for eastern species has declined in Lahti of today.
The most common eastern species in Lahti are Tragopogon pratensis, Artemisia campestris, Melilotus albus, Vicia hirsuta and Conyza canadensis. The polemocore species of Hennala barracks have been monitored since 1921. Among them, Sanguisorba officinalis, Geranium palustre, Bromus inermis and Juncus compressus are worth mentioning.
Kurtto, A. & Helynranta, L. 2017: Helsingin kasveja 7. Liitosalueen antia. – Lutukka 33(2): 57–63.
Vascular plants of Helsinki 7. Contributions of the latest annexed area
As of 2009, adjacent land areas in Helsinki’s neighbours Sipoo and Vantaa were annexed into Helsinki. The land area of Helsinki increased by nearly 30 km2 and the water area by about 2,6 km2. The vascular flora of the annexed area was accurately mapped in 2011‒2015 as a supplement to the mapping of the former area of the city (land c. 187 km2, water c. 500 km2). Despite its relatively small size, the annexed area strengthened considerably the populations of many native or archaeophytic plant species in the capital of Finland by adding numerous new occurrences and often also by increasing the average size of the occurrences. Due to the basically forested and rural nature of the annexed area, the greatest winners of the flora include especially plants of the following environments: (1) slope groves and mossy heath forests, (2) open bogs and pine swamps, (3) oligotrophic inland waters, (4) tops and precipices of high rock outcrops, and (5) semi-natural grasslands. Only two species, viz. Filipendula vulgaris and Hypochaeris maculata, were gained as new to the all-time flora of Helsinki.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 33(2): 42–43.
Summaries (in English)
Kiviniemi, A. 2017: Kasviretkiä venäläisen puutavaran jäljillä II – alue-esittelyt. – Lutukka 33 (1): 3–23.
Floristic finds from depot areas of Russian timber in Kouvola area, SE Finland
Interesting plant records from twelve pulpwood storage and processing areas at Kouvola, SE Finland (mainly in the biogeographical province of South Häme) were presented in an earlier article (Kiviniemi 2016). This article continues the theme by taking a closer look at the respective localities.
Pulpwood, mainly birch, has been imported by railway to the area from Russia in varying amounts according to the changing customs regulations. The maximum levels were reached in the early 2000s. The imported wood was stored in large stacks along the railway tracks and in railway yards. Aerial photographs taken in 2008 show huge white stacks of pulp birch in several places. Today, the imported wood is transported directly to storage areas inside UPM Kymmene pulp factory area, and temporary storage areas are no longer used.
Of the studied localities, the flora of the railway yard at Voikkaa was presented earlier (Kiviniemi 2015). The other localities include eight pulpwood storage areas (Kuusaanlampi, Kuusaanniemi, Kymintehdas, Pokinpelto, Saksanaho, Tillola – Miehonkangas, UPM factories) and a crane area for bundled wood (Kuusaanlampi).
Three of the localities are or include former industrial dumps (Pilkanmaa, Saksanaho, Vuohivuori), used in 1920–2000. They contain by-products from the pulp mills, sludge, ash, etc. The most important material regarding dispersal of seeds and other propagules is, however, waste soil from wood storage areas, composed mainly of birch bark mixed with sand and gravel. This kind of dump is not used anymore, as the waste is used in power production or as raw material for fertilizer industry.
The floristic results are summarized in Table 1. (50 most common introduced vascular plant species) and Table 2. (other interesting species – attached above in the list of contents). It is difficult to ascertain the origin of each species in different localities. However, the original vegetation in all the localities was largely destroyed. As most of the listed species are concentrated in these timber depot areas at Kouvola, it seems logical to draw the conclusion that they have a Russian origin.
Juutinen, R. 2017: Mitä suomalaiset lettokehräsammalet oikein ovat? – Lutukka 33 (1): 24–27.
Moerckia flotoviana and M. hibernica s.str. (Hepaticae) in Finland
A small number of Moerckia hibernica s.lat. specimens were determined from Finnish herbarium material, and both M. flotoviana and M. hibernica s.str. were found to occur in Finland. The key characters used in the determination of the species are discussed, as well as the preliminary results on their ecology and distribution in Finland. However, due to the limited number of specimens studied so far, their distributions and ecological preferences still remain uncertain.
Kääntönen, M. 2017: Kyseenalaista puuhastelua uhanalaisten kasvien istutuksilla ja siirroilla Tampereen seudulla. – Lutukka 33 (1): 30–31.
Unusual activities with threatened plants at Tampere
Galium schultesii was found in two localities at Tampere, South Häme, in 2016, obviously intentionally planted in natural vegetation. The introducer of this threatened species destroyed one of the colonies later, after realizing that it had been revealed.
An alternative action plan has been suggested for maintenance of the Pyynikki esker reserve, advocated by a local society, which has collaborated with the administration of Tampere town. This plan proposes a so called refuge zone at the foot of the esker to house rare or threatened species to be transferred from localities being considered for town planning in order to avoid conflict with building activities. Also, sports activities like mountain biking, Frisbee golf and orienteering have been suggested for the nature reserve to create artificial open patches to renew vegetation. In addition, planting of rare esker plants in the area has been suggested. This kind of activity, however, goes against the principles of rational nature conservation, by trying to create ”a zoo of plants”.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 33 (1): 27–29.
Summaries (in English)
Ulvinen, T. & Vilpa, E. 2016: Mitä kuuluu Oulun saksalaiskasveille. – Lutukka 32(4): 99–113.
German polemochores (alien plants spread by war) in Oulu
German troops were present in Oulu town (biogeographical province of Oulu Ostrobothnia, N central Finland) during World War II from 10.6.1941 to 14.9. 1944. Oulu was important for the German army as a centre of transportation, lodging, maintenance and exercise. The most important base was in Toppila harbour area, where troops and equipment as well as huge amounts of forage for the horses and mules stationed in northern Finland were imported. The transportation brought a large quantity of polemochores to the area. A barrack site called Vaakunakylä was built SE of the harbour. A training centre for SS troops, ”Little Berlin”, with more than 100 buildings was constructed in Tuira quarter. The only remains of the village are the former officers’ club built in mountain cottage style and given the name Alppila (”Alpine village”). A leave centre was built in Laanila along Oulujoki River and an exercise area was rented at Puolivälinkangas. Troops were lodged in tents between Isko and Kaijonharju.
Information on polemochores found in Toppila harbour and other areas leased to the Wehrmacht has been published in several papers, most recently in the Flora of Oulu (Väre et al. 2005), where most of the German alien plants were found to have disappeared due to building of the town. In 2016, more than 70 years after the German period, we tried to find what was left. 37 species, which were polemochores at least in some of their occurrences, were listed, and the most important of them are discussed.
The most prominent German polemochore in Oulu is Cardaminopsis arenosa. It was selected as the floral emblem of Oulu Town. At present it is common and abundant especially along railroads, also everywhere in northern Finland.
Luzula luzuloides is still growing in a grove by the Linnanmaa campus area of the University of Oulu at a site with several remains of German activity. Another occurrence is located close to a memorial stone for German troops. A third, newly discovered population in the eastern part of the town along Oulujoki River is of unknown origin. Poa chaixii has its northernmost locality in Finland in Linnanmaa campus area.
Alchemilla baltica was found in Toppila as late as the 1990s, but it is regarded as a German polemochore. It is known also from a few other localities in Oulu.
Centaurea jacea was common in Toppila during the German period. It was believed to have disappeared in the 1990s, but was rediscovered in 2016. It is not known whether the plant had arisen from the seed bank or arrived with lawn seed. According to the gardener in charge of the area only a couple of Poaceae species were sown there. The hybrid C. jacea × montana has been found both from ballast soil and as a German polemochore in Toppila.
Galium × pomeranicum is a polemochore in the German base areas. It has mainly disappeared from the built-up areas in Toppila. In addition, a variant with hairy fruits, var. trachycarpum, was earlier known from Toppila. Now the hybrid grows only along the railroad in the barrack square of the Finnish army, and probably it is of Russian origin.
Other polemochores in the present study are, e.g., Berteroa incana, Bromus inermis, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Dianthus deltoides, Heracleum sphondylium, Poa angustifolia and Vicia sepium subsp. sepium. Polemochores are part of our cultural history and deserve monitoring and maintenance.
Uotila, P. 2016: Suomen vesitähdet ja erityisesti uposvesitähti. – Lutukka 32(4): 119–126.
The genus Callitriche (Plantaginacea) in Finland
Four species of Callitriche, viz. C. hermaphroditica, C. hamulata, C. cophocarpa and C. palustris are native in Finland and C. stagnalis has been found as a casual alien from Helsinki in 1940. Morphological, biological and ecological characters important for their recognition are given and discussed. C. hermaphroditica is represented in Finland by subsp. hermaphroditica and subsp. macrocarpa, which can be distinguished by the mericarps, in particular by the size and the width of the wing. The former is the only subsp. in fresh waters in southernmost Finland. It is rare in brackish water along most of the coast, very rare in central parts of the country, and more common in Lapland. It has probably decreased in recent decades. The latter is fairly frequent and the predominant subsp. in brackish water along the whole coast and in Åland Islands, and is absent from fresh waters in inland South and Central Finland, but present in freshwater sites in Lapland.
The taxonomy and nomenclature of Callitriche hamulata are discussed. The species is characteristic of several rivers in Lapland, but in South Finland frequently found only in Tampere and its vicinity since 1937 and occasionally from a few other sites. C. cophocarpa and C. palustris are widespread in Finland but they prefer different habitats, the former growing often in more permanent waters with some flow and the latter in temporary pools and on bare wet soil.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 32(4): 114–118.
Summaries (in English)
Hinneri, S. 2016: Punakoison leviämishistoria, muuntelu ja ekologia eteläisellä Selkämerellä. – Lutukka 32(3): 67-71.
Bittersweet in the southeastern Sea of Bothnia area: distribution, growth forms and ecology
Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) was rare in the southeastern coastal regions of the Sea of Bothnia (SW Finland) until the 1970s. Only four indigenous occurrences were known in the outer archipelago. Owing to rising summer temperatures and the autumnal extension of the growing season since the late 1970s, Bittersweet has immigrated to 55 islands in the area. Migratory flocks of thrushes moving southwards along the coast in autumn may provide an explanation for its rapid and extensive spread in the offshore archipelago.
The prevailing growth form of Bittersweet in the area is prostrate or climbing and it prefers seaside Black Alder woodlands in the inner archipelago, whereas on outer treeless islands it is found in thickets of Sea-buckthorn and, occasionally, in clefts between large rocks. In addition, three other growth forms adapated to specific ecological conditions can be recognized.
Bittersweet is commonly regarded as a species of nutrient-rich biotopes, and this is true also for the outmost islands where organic deposits on seaside banks of gravelly and sandy drift-soil easily decay and become mineralized owing to the recent change in climate. In addition, the autumnal extension of the growing season has now made ripening of berries possible in offshore habitats.
In the inner archipelago, rocky islands – formerly treeless owing to intensive sheep pasturing – are today covered by pine woods rich in dwarf-shrubs, and consequently surface water becomes acidic, so preventing the growth of Bittersweet as well as Sea-buckthorn along the shore. So Bittersweet is confined to the islands having nutrient-rich moraine deposits and stocked with broad-leaved trees.
Väre, H., Kaipiainen-Väre, H. & Syrjänen, K. 2016: Ukkosen jumalan tunturissa – Terbmisvárrin ja Jollanoaivin tuntureiden kasvisto. – Lutukka 32(3): 72–84.
The flora of Mounts Jollanoaivi and Terbmisvárri in Enontekiö, northwesternmost Finnish Lapland
The mountains Jollanoaivi (1 026.3 m a.s.l.) and Terbmisvárri (1 028.8 m) are located just outside the limited area of the Finnish Scandes bordering on Norway and Sweden. The bedrock is pre-Cambrian, lacking rich calcareous formations typical of the Scandes. The tree line is formed by Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii at ca. 600 m in the eastern part of the main study area, but does not occur in this high-altitude oroarctic belt. Other trees, Populus tremula and Sorbus aucuparia subsp. glabrata are rare. Between the mountains there is a large mountain lake, Terbmisjavre at 612.7 m a.s.l. The escarpment of Mt Jollanoaivi is south facing and dry, that of Mt Terbmisvárri north facing and moist. The nearest mountains to the north, Kahperus and Kuonjarvárri (Väre et al. 2015), also exceeding 1 000 m a.s.l., are within the Scandes and have extensive calcareous bed rocks. These major areas are compared in the article. Kahperus and Kuonjarvárri have a rich flora of vascular plants and bryophytes, but in the present study area the species numbers are much smaller. In the former there are 36 calciphilous vascular plants, in the latter only 14. The numbers of threatened or nearly threatened taxa are 24 and 16, respectively. Perhaps more importantly, the number of populations and individuals of arctic-alpine plants are much lower on Mts Jollanoaivi and Terbmisvárri. As a matter of fact, many species have their southernmost sites in Finland at Mt Terbmisvárri. In total 200 vascular plant species including six subspecies, and 217 bryophytes, have been found in this ca. 40 km² area.
Hinneri, S. 2016: Matalien kallioriuttojen kasvilajisto eteläisen Selkämeren ulappa-alueilla. – Lutukka 32(3): 88–95.
Vascular plant species on low rocky islets in open sea areas of the southern Sea of Bothnia
The vascular flora of the larger and higher islands of the SW archipelago of Finland has been investigated fairly thoroughly while rocky islets lower than three meters a.s.l. have usually been ignored. Rocky islets provide a very suitable site for studying the early stages in the succession of terrestrial vegetation and, in addition, differences between species in sensitivity to salinity. On rocky islets subject to uplift most species form ecological groups restricted to definite biotopes. In this study 60 flat rocky islets 1.5–2.5 m high and 100–240 m long were investigated in the main study area of the southern Sea of Bothnia. Established vascular plants were listed and the ecological diversity of biotopes was described. For a comparison, 40 similar islets in the Kihti open sea area in the southern part of Finland’s SW archipelago were investigated, but only for species assemblages.
The following five habitat types with characteristic species are discernible: crevices of bare rocks (Puccinellia capillaris, Sagina procumbens), boulder heaps (Lythrum salicaria, Peucedanum palustre), stony rock slopes (Silene uniflora, Rumex crispus subsp. littoreus), lagoons (Potentilla palustris, Hippuris vulgaris) and dry grasslands (Deschampsia flexuosa, Stellaria graminea and many annuals).
Floristic notes – Lutukka 32(3): 85-87.
Summaries (in English)
Kiviniemi, A. 2016: Kasviretkiä venäläisen puutavaran jäljillä – ensimmäisen kesän alkupaloja. – Lutukka 32(2): 35–45.
Some interesting records of vascular plants from depot areas for Russian timber in SE Finland
The author has studied the vascular plant flora in the railway yard at Voikkaa, Kouvola town in the border area between the biogeographical provinces of South Häme (EH), South Savo (ES) and Uusimaa (U) during several years. Records of many alien species proved to concentrate especially in places, where Russian timber had been stored or handled. Kouvola is known for its wood processing industry – both former and present – and there are several active or abandoned railway yard and depot areas similar to that at Voikkaa. In the spring 2015, the study was extended to cover 12 such localities in Kouvola. The intention was to find out the 50 most common species brought in with Russian timber. The project turned out to be both interesting and rewarding. This article presents the most interesting results of the first field season. The study area and a summary of the results will be presented later. The project is continued in 2016 with further field visits.
Four taxa new to Finland were found in 2015. Carex pilosa, a southern and southeastern European species of oak and beech forests, was found at Voikkaa railway yard in 2015, and in another locality at Saksanaho, in a former industrial dump in May 2016 (both EH). The species is also probably new to the Nordic Countries. Erigeron annuus subsp. strigosus was found at Kuusaanniemi timber depot in Kouvola (EH), Trifolium alpestre and Astragalus danicus at Miehonkangas timber depot in Iitti (EH). Other interesting finds were, e.g. Polygala amarella at Saksanaho (no previous records from Kouvola, rare in mainland Finland), Androsace filiformis (Kuusaanniemi), Astragalus glycyphyllos (Kuusaanlampi, ES), Thalictrum lucidum (Saksanaho) and Chaerophyllum aromaticum (Voikkaa; the second extant locality in Finland). Veronica beccabunga was surprisingly found in a partly covered ditch along the wall of an old warehouse in the industrial area of Kymintehdas (EH). There was only one recent record of the species from Kouvola at Mustila (U). Carex ornithopoda was found in a depot area as an alien; otherwise this rare and threatened species is only known from the Aland Islands in Finland.
Kämäräinen, H. 2016: Horkkakatkeron elinvoimaa vuosikymmenten ajan entisellä kalkkilouhosalueella Vimpelissä. – Lutukka 32(2): 46–48.
Gentianella amarella in Vimpeli, Central Ostrobothnia
Gentianella amarella has declined in Finland since the 1950s. The total number of known localities is ca. 400, but only ca. 100 of them remain, and the species is regarded as endangered. Most of the extant localities are in the southwest (Aland Islands and Varsinais-Suomi), and in the north (Outer Ostrobothnia and Koillismaa). One of the largest populations, found in 1991, is located midway between these two areas in Vimpeli (Central Ostrobothnia) in an abandoned limestone quarry. In 2015, the total number of flowering second-year plants was estimated to be at least 6,440.
Ulvinen, T. 2016: Nipponinlähdesammal Euroopalle uutena Ylläksellä. – Lutukka 32(2): 49–51.
Philonotis yezoana new for Europe
The moss Philonotis yezoana was collected in Finnish Lapland (Pallas-Ylläs National Park) in 1965 for the first time in Europe. The site is very probably Varkaankurunoja brook on the northern slope of Ylläs Mountain (Kolari parish, biogeographical province of Kittilä Lapland). In companion there were several typical mosses of brook and brookside habitats, e.g. Pohlia wahlenbergii and Scapania paludosa. The specimens are at the Botanical Museum of Oulu University (OULU) and Finnish Museum of Natural History (H). The main distribution of P. yezoana includes Far East of Russia, Japan, Korea, western and eastern North America and Greenland.
Saarinen, K. Jantunen, J. & Pulli, A. 2016: Vanhojen koululaisherbaarioiden kertomaa. – Lutukka 32(2): 52–61.
The flora of eastern Finland as reflected in old school herbaria between 1925 and 1969
In a period of over one century between 1864 and 1969, most Finnish grammar school pupils were obliged to collect plants in their early teens. The number of species required varied between 200 in the early 1900s and 80 in the late1960s. We analyzed 885 plant specimens of seven old herbaria between 1925 and 1969, collected mainly in eastern Finland from the biogeographical provinces of South Karelia (Ka), South Savo (Sa) and North Savo (Sb). Among the most common of the 357 recorded plant taxa, Centaurea cyanus and Rubus arcticus have decreased markedly since the period of collection. Formerly a variety of meadow species, such as Dianthus deltoides, Trifolium spadiceum, Trifolium aureum, Galium verum and Bistorta vivipara, were also regularly collected by the pupils. Moreover we discovered some real meadow and weed rarities, including Agrostemma githago, Androsace septentrionalis, Apera spica-venti, Parnassia palustris, Polygala amarella and Selinum carvifolia. On the other hand, several species common nowadays were virtually absent or scarce in the herbaria. These included Angelica sylvestris, Campanula patula, Galium album, Lupinus polyphyllus, Amelanchier spicata and many of the common trees, such as Acer, Betula, Populus and Salix. While this may be partly due to practical reasons (such as ’no flowers’), it can also be indicative of true environmental changes related to forest management, including grazing and logging. Despite the rather small data set, it also nicely portrays changes in agricultural practices, both in fields and meadows, since the end of the collecting period more than 50 years ago.
Kääntönen, M. & Lahtonen, T. 2016: Juurtonurmikka Tampereen ydinkeskustan kansallismaisemassa. – Lutukka 32(2): 62–63.
Poa supina in the centre of Tampere
Poa supina was found in the centre of Tampere town (South Häme) in 2014 as wide mats in a trampled lawn in the former industrial area of Tampella. Though at least parts of the lawn are cut every year, the plant thrives, and in 2016 it still covered wide areas. The origin of the plant is unknown, but it is probable that the species has arrived as a seed weed in the rather newly sown lawn. As the other vegetation has suffered due to heavy trampling, Poa supina has been able to gain still more ground. It is also possible that the plant represents a North American cultivar advertised as highly resistant against wearing, as was also suspected in Helsinki in a similar case in 2008.
Summaries (in English)
Jantunen, J. & Saarinen, K. 2016: 25 vuotta niitynhoitoa ja kasviseurantaa Joutsenossa. – Lutukka (32)1: 3–10.
25 years of regular management and vegetation monitoring on a semi-natural meadow in Joutseno, SE Finland
The effects of mowing (1990–1995, 2014–) and grazing by sheep (1997–2012) on meadow vegetation were followed in a valuable semi-natural meadow located at Pellisenranta, Joutseno, SE Finland between the years 1990 and 2015. The vegetation data were collected on a grid of 45 sample plots (1 m × 1 m) in the year 1990 and 83 plots in years 1996, 2001, 2006, 2010 and 2015. Most changes in the vegetation were beneficial. Firstly, the management has increased species diversity. While the total number of species in the plots has remained approximately at the same level (75 species), the mean number of species per plot has increased continuously from 10–13 species in the 1990s to 17 species in 2015. Especially Anthriscus sylvestris (+36 plots), Anthoxanthum odoratum (+32) and typical species of mesic meadows such as Hypericum maculatum (+28), Ranunculus acris (+28) and Trifolium medium (+16) have been recorded increasingly often in the course of monitoring. By contrast, the number of plots has mostly decreased in Elytrigia repens (–30), Taraxacum (–21) and Campanula patula (–19), which are probably signs of the former cultivation in the 1960s. According to photographs, Viscaria vulgaris was very abundant in the dry meadow in the 1980s, but the abundance and distribution area of this meadow plant has decreased. In general the vegetation has changed from a dry meadow type towards a mesic meadow type, although many dry meadow species have also become more common due to regular meadow management.
Kämäräinen, H. 2016: Kasvaako Kuusamossa aitoa lapinkämmekkää? – Lutukka (32)1: 11–15.
Dactylorhiza lapponica s.str. is probably present also in Kuusamo Region
The taxon often named as Dactylorhiza lapponica has so far been known as a rarity in four provinces of North Finland: North Ostrobothnia, and Kittilä, Sompio and Inari Lapland. Unverified records have been reported also from Kuusamo Region and Enontekiö Lapland. A small population of 14 flowering plants was found in a small rich fen in Kuusamo in 2015. It is here interpreted as belonging to this disputed taxon. According to different views, D. lapponica is today either included in D. traunsteineri or both taxa together are included in D. majalis as subsp. lapponica.
Kääntönen, M. & Järventausta, K. 2016: Outo verikurjenpolviesiintymä Valkeakosken Sääksmäellä (EH). – Lutukka (32)1: 16–18.
Geranium sanguineum on a remote forest rock outcrop at Valkeakoski, South Häme
Geranium sanguineum was found on a terrace of a remote rock outcrop at Sääksmäki, Valkeakoski in the 1990s. The vegetation on the site indicates a rock with a high nutrient content, but some vascular plant species can be classified as weeds. The closest villages are at a distance of almost five kilometers. The population at Sääksmäki is of ancient origin, and it is possible that G. sanguineum is an old archaeophyte. Among the other species at the site, Satureja acinos is known from the near-by Rapola relic area. The steepness of the rock and a possible ruin of a stone wall might indicate the ancient use of the place as a fortification. G. sanguineum has also been used as a medicinal herb in the past. On the other hand, the remoteness of the site and the idea that some western plant species in Finland may have spread also from the south, make it possible that G. sanguineum could be also native. There is an older specimen from Sääksmäki without exact locality information, collected in 1882. With no further information, the origin of the species at Sääksmäki remains unresolved.
Saarinen, K., Blomqvist, L. & Havo, J. 2016: Yleisökartoitus Etelä-Karjalan ja Etelä-Savon kangasvuokoista. – Lutukka (32)1: 19–25.
A public survey of Pulsatilla vernalis in South Karelia and South Savo, SE Finland
Pulsatilla vernalis is a vulnerable species of dry pine forests, flowering in the early spring. Previously recorded from 11 biogeographical provinces, its distribution nowadays covers mainly three provinces in the southeastern corner of the country. In the vascular plant atlas of Finland there were only 33 10 km × 10 km squares with a positive observation of P. vernalis since the year 2000. In spring 2015 we used a public survey via newspapers and social media to complete the current distribution of the species in its strongest footholds in South Karelia and South Savo. As a result 168 persons provided data from 164 different sites of P. vernalis. These were located in three biogeographical provinces (South Savo, South Häme, Ladoga Karelia), with most observations from the municipalities of Lappeenranta (42), Taipalsaari (25) and Ruokolahti (25). People were generally worried about the future of the species, as many sites were threatened by various environmental changes; also transplantations still occur. Furthermore, large populations are nowadays scarce and more than half of the populations had fewer than ten flowers. Judging by the lovely stories provided by many observers, the beautiful plant is warmly welcomed every spring in its natural habitat.
Huttunen, S. & Pitkämäki, T. 2016: Hakasuikerosammal – huonosti tunnettu vai aidosti harvinainen? – Lutukka (32)1: 26–31.
Brachythecium campestre – insufficiently known or truly rare?
Brachythecium campestre is a rare moss, in Finland occurring in mesic grasslands and forest pastures in the southernmost provinces. In the most recent Red List of Finland the species was evaluated as nearly threatened (NT). We revised B. campestre specimens kept in Finnish herbaria (H, OULU, TUR, TUR-A). Several collections accepted as B. campestre in the evaluation for the Red List of 2010 turned out to be misidentifications. Of the correctly identified specimens only two were collected since 1970. B. campestre is thus rarer than expected, but it remains unclear whether the low number of observations reflects the confusing taxonomic history of the species or the decrease of suitable habitats in Southern Finland. We encourage especially those botanists working in habitats created by traditional agriculture to pay attention to B. campestre and to collect specimens for identification.
Summaries (in English)
Väre, H., Kaipiainen-Väre, H. & Syrjänen, K. 2015: Kuonjarvarrin ja lähituntureiden kalkkiylänköjen kasvit. – Lutukka 31(4): 99–112.
The flora of Mount Kuonjarvarri and neighboring fjelds in Enontekiö, northwesternmost Finnish Lapland
Three mountains, Gahperus, Kuonjarvarri and Toskalharji, are in the limited area of the Finnish Scandes bordering on Norway and Sweden. The area is located at the edge of the geological Kalak-nappe overthrust complex. All three mountains exceed 1,000 m above sea level. The tree line is formed by Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii at ca. 630 m in the neigbouring area, but birch does not occur in this high-altitude oroarctic belt.
These mountains are characterized by rocks which are mainly moderately basic or acidic and with scattered but locally extensive calcareous outcrops. Between the mountains there is a broad river valley with some high precipices, both dry south-facing and moist north-facing. The plateau of Kuonjarvarri includes environments resembling the high arctic, with many species having a main distribution area in the arctic.
This environment supports a rich flora of vascular plants and bryophytes. Many species have here their northernmost sites in Finland. On the other hand many arctic-alpine species have their southernmost Finnish sites in the area. In total 187 vascular plant species and five subspecies, and 280 bryophytes, have been found in this ca. 30 km² area. These include 24 red-listed vascular plants and 45 bryophytes, some of which are arctic-alpine species rare in the whole of Fennoscandia – e.g. Antennaria nordhageniana, A. porsildii, A. villifera, Ranunculus sulphureus, Brachythecium coruscum, Sciuro-hypnum dovrense, Bryum wrightii and Encalypta longicolla. Threatened and near-threatened vascular plants and red-listed bryophytes are listed.
Lampinen, J. & Rautiainen, V.-P. 2015: Sipulinurmikka Halikossa – vakiintunut uustulokas vai arkeofyytti? – Lutukka 31(4): 113–114.
Is Poa bulbosa an established neophyte or an archaeophyte in Halikko, south-western Finland?
The origin of Poa bulbosa L., a rare grass in Halikko, Salo, south-western Finland (Varsinais-Suomi), is examined in relation to other known localities of the species in Finland and Sweden. Poa bulbosa is considered a neophyte in Finland, but descriptions of the species’ habitats in e.g. Sweden suggest that it could just as well be an archaeophyte in Halikko. The surrounding grassland community in Halikko includes both archaeophytes and apophytes common to dry grasslands on shallow soils, such as Arabidopsis suecica, Galium verum, Geranium pusillum, Sedum acre, S. telephium, Trifolium arvense and Veronica verna.
Kunttu, P. 2015: Jättituija on levinnyt luontoon toistaiseksi vain arboretumeista. – Lutukka 31(4): 117–118.
The invasive alien Thuja plicata has thus far spread into the wild only from arboreta in Finland
According to the Finnish national strategy on invasive alien species Thuja plicata is a potentially or locally harmful alien plant species. There is one earlier case, on Pettu Island, where T. plicata has spread to the wild from old plantations, and two new cases are presented here.
Forests of two arboreta were inventoried in summer 2015: Godby in Jomala (Åland Islands) and Sahajärvi nature reserve in Salo (Varsinais-Suomi). The numbers of trees are presented in Table 1. In Godby 70 % of the trees were descendants of trees planted in the 1930s. They were growing within an area of 1.5 hectares of mainly mesic heath forest. In Sahajärvi, 68 % of trees were descendants of trees planted in the 1930s, mainly in mesic heath forest but also in herb-rich forest within a total area of one hectare. The diameter at breast height of the largest tree was 53 cm in Sahajärvi.
From a conservation and ecological perspective it is of great concern that so many invasive alien species are allowed to grow in Sahajärvi nature reserve, based on the history of the locality. All invasive species should be removed from the reserve because they have a negative impact on the natural biodiversity.
Kämäräinen, H. 2015: Rantaorvokin uutta runsautta Vesilahden (EH) Mantereen kylässä. – Lutukka 31(4): 119–124.
Are the largest Finnish populations of Viola stagnina at Vesilahti, South Häme?
Two large populations of the endangered (EN) Viola stagnina were found at Vesilahti in the 2000s. However, one of them has already declined close to extinction. A new population was found in 2014 about 500 m away. When the locality was visited in 2015, Viola stagnina was abundant along c. 140 m of the field-side bank of a major ditch running towards the shore of Lake Hulausjärvi. Later, the species was found also along five smaller ditches in the same field.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 31(4): 124–125.
Books – Lutukka 31(4): 126.
Summaries (in English)
Pykälä, J. 2015: Tuulenkaatopuiden paljastaman maan unohdettu kasvisto. – Lutukka 31(3): 67–74.
Forgotten forest flora of soils exposed by uprooted wind-fallen trees
Soil exposed by uprooted fallen trees is a common and important phenomenon in natural forests. Due to intensive forestry fallen uprooted trees are uncommon and their importance for vascular plants has been neglected. Flora of 25 large, young (< 2 years old) soil patches exposed by uprooted Picea abies in herb-rich forests were studied in Lohja, SW Finland. Altogether 108 herbaceous vascular plant species were found, which probably grew to the exposed patches from seeds or spores. It seems that many species are able to grow in small gaps exposed by a single or a few uprooted trees inside herb-rich forests. Many species considered as archaeophytes in Finland (e.g. Campanula patula, Carex leporina, Hypericum maculatum, Trifolium repens, Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. serpyllifolia) were common in such places, and they are apparently native forest species, which depend on disturbances exposing soil. Most of these species typically have a long-term persistent seed bank, but several others have effective wind-dispersal of propagules.
Saarinen, K. 2015: Päivityksiä Etelä-Savon eteläosan uhanalaisista ja vähän muistakin. – Lutukka 31(3): 82–95.
Rechecking old habitats of the threatened flora in SE Finland
Between 1984 and 1990, as a young and fresh botanist, I collected a few rare vascular plant species in the area of Lappeenranta, SE Finland, biogeographical Province of South Savo. Most of them are nowadays evaluated as threatened. In the years 2014 and 2015, I revisited some of the localities, where almost all the species were still present. Most amazingly, Epipactis palustris (EN) had survived in a meadow ditched already in 1994, yet the habitat has turned into a dry and shady bushland. Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. polyphylla (CR) has markedly increased on the island of Hyötiö, where also probably the first populations of Rumex hydrolapathum in the Lake Saimaa area are known from. Trifolium montanum (NT) still grew along the old railway, accompanied by Rumex confertus and many other eastern immigrants. Carex bohemica (VU) was not seen in its two habitats in Pappilanniemi, most likely due to the high water level, but it was alive and well in a small marina in Muukonniemi. Although the last observations of Rumex maritimus (EN) in Mutalahti dated back to as far as 1998, it was now rediscovered in low numbers in the remaining parts of the bay. During the field work, some valuable localities, both new and old ones, were also checked in nearby Joutseno and Imatra. Since 2009, Ononis arvensis (VU) has survived in its roadside habitat although it has been mowed each year and the ditch was dug up in 2014. The regionally endangered Carex pediformis was very abundant on the island of Muukonsaari, accompanied by Galium triflorum and some other rarities. A population of Carlina biebersteinii (EN) in Imatra, already known in the 1870s, was still alive. The species was also observed in a small village in Joutseno where it has been recorded only twice before, both records dating back to 1929.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 31(3): 74–80
Kaksi uutta Norrliniaa, s. 44
Summaries (in English)
Kääntönen, M. 2015: Ahosilmäruohopaikkojen seurantaa ja hoitoa Pirkanmaalla. – Lutukka 31(2): 35–43.
Monitoring and management of Euphrasia rostkoviana subsp. fennica in Pirkanmaa, S Finland
Most of the early records of Euphrasia rostkoviana subsp. fennica from the Province of Pirkanmaa (located in the biogeographical provinces of Satakunta and South Häme) date back to the early 1900s; the first herbarium specimen was collected in 1880. Today, the species is regarded as threatened (EN) in Finland.
The species has been monitored in Pirkanmaa since 1985. This article summarises the situation at 11 sites monitored in 2003–2014. Several of these are located in areas with extensive fluvioglacial formations, where the species has found suitable habitats on dry meadows and at the margins of arable fields on sandy soils. Overgrowing of these habitats has been rather slow after cessation of the old-fashioned agricultural practices. Euphrasia rostkoviana grows also on railway banks, e.g. at Orivesi and Juupajoki. Nardus stricta, Gentianella campestris, Gymnadenia conopsea var. conopsea, Euphrasia stricta and Calluna vulgaris have been typical accompanying species in the monitored habitats.
Habitats of Euphrasia rostkoviana have been managed in four seminatural biotopes at Tampere, Viljakkala, Vesilahti and Nokia. The practice will be continued, although it seems that the species may have disappeared from two of the localities. The population sizes have also fluctuated. As an annual the species is dependent on regular seed yield; and sometimes pure chance, e.g. seed dispersal on tractor wheels, has influenced the population dynamics.
Pitkänen-Heikkilä, K. & Salo, V. 2015: Tieteen termipankki tarvitsee kasviharrastajia. – Lutukka 31(2): 45–48.
The Bank of Finnish Terminology in Arts and Sciences needs plant enthusiasts
The Bank of Finnish Terminology in Arts and Sciences (BFT) is an infrastructure project funded by the Academy of Finland and the University of Helsinki. The aim of this project is to build up a common term database for all disciplines of sciences and arts that are practised in Finland. The database (www.tieteentermipankki.fi) is created on a Wiki platform and it is open for all kinds of users, both experts and laymen.
Botany is one of the three pilot projects used to develop the platform. In the beginning 300 plant morphological terms were introduced and by now there are 2 616 terms included. In biology and environmental sciences, there are 5 290 and 6 009 terms, respectively.
The terminology work is carried out mainly voluntarily by limited crowd-sourcing. The definitions and other data presented on each term’s website are produced by expert botanists but anyone can participate in the discussions about terms. The BFT is also inviting plant enthusiasts to collaborate by submitting photos or drawings which would greatly help to clarify plant morphological terms. The illustrations will be published under the same terms of Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 licence as the other contents of the term web page.
Särkkä, J. 2015: Keski-Pohjanmaalle uusia alkuperäiskasveja ja muinaistulokkaita. – Lutukka 31(2): 49–55.
Noteworthy finds of a few indigenous plants and archaeophytes in Central Ostrobothnia
During the systematic floristic inventory of the province of Central Ostrobothnia some new taxa for the province have been found. They improve and correct distribution maps in the Field Flora of Finland. Alnus incana subsp. kolaënsis has been found from several localities in the northern part of the province. Most finds are from small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia and are represented by small solitary trees or shrubs. In addition sporadic hybrids with A. incana subsp. incana occur in the province. A thriving population of Cardamine amara, several sq km wide, was found in Kokkola town, beside the Perhonjoki river. This population is one of the northernmost for the species in Finland. Salix repens subsp. rosmarinifolia belongs to a difficult group of willows. Some new finds are reported from the inland parts of the province, while on the coast Salix repens var. argentata is common. Their intermediates are morphologically very variable and they are frequent in overlapping areas. Many of the old localities of Drosera intermedia in Central Ostrobothnia have disappeared due to drying of peatlands. However, there is still a vigorous population in a large bog area in Kokkola town, Kälviä. Pedicularis palustris subsp. opsiantha was probably omitted in many earlier inventories, but since 2000 the taxon has been found from almost a dozen localities in Central Ostrobothnia, mostly from poor fens and fens adjacent to ponds. Further finds are expected. A well-established population of Picris hieracioides in Lehtimäki parish indicates that the species is in the province as an arcaheophyte rather than as a more recent introduction. A rare sedge, Carex atherodes, was found in 2005 as new for the province; however, the colony along a ditch in forest was very small and not thriving as well as in 2014.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 31(2): 55–63.
Summaries (in English)
Jantunen, J. & Saarinen, K. 2015: Sykeröpoimulehti Etelä-Karjalassa. – Lutukka 31(1): 3–10
The inventory of Alchemilla hirsuticaulis habitats in South Karelia, SE Finland
In Finland, Alchemilla hirsuticaulis is a vulnerable species, confined to the eastern parts of the country, and South Karelia in particular. Most records date back to the 1960s and 1980s. There are only four new records since 2000.
In 2014 we inventoried 32 known localities of A. hirsuticaulis in the province of South Karelia. The plant was found from only 9 old sites; most of them were on road verges, or in semi-natural habitats and close to forest edges. One site was in a garden lawn and another in an abandoned field. A. hirsuticaulis had probably disappeared from the rest of the checked 19 sites. Most of these were overgrown or afforested meadows and field margins. Also construction and ploughing could be blamed for the destruction of some old habitats.
In the course of the inventory, altogether 15 new populations were found although no systematic search was made. The new sites were located mainly along road verges, in meadows and in gardens. These findings indicate that A. hirsuticaulis may still be a rather common species in the Lappeenranta – Imatra region, but it has just been overlooked because flower characters need to be checked carefully. Based on information from the current habitats, the species is rather tolerant of mowing of road verges and lawns, and it also tolerates some shading. There are probably many local populations of A. hirsuticaulis yet to be discovered in South Karelia.
Kiviniemi, A. 2015: Nurmivihvilä ja muita ihmeitä Voikkaan ratapihalla (EH). – Lutukka 31(1): 13–26
Juncus tenuis and other aliens in Voikkaa railway yard, SE Finland
Voikkaa is a small population centre located in Kouvola town, SE Finland. Voikkaa railway yard was built in the early 1900s to serve the local pulp and paper mills. It has an area of ca. 20 hectares. Timber was imported mainly from the neighbouring areas of the former Soviet Union and later Russia, coal also from more distant areas. The mills were closed down in 2006, and much of the former railway yard with its storage areas is becoming overgrown.
At first glance the railway yard doesn’t look very interesting but it is worth a closer examination. The author visited the area repeatedly in 2006–2014, and the field lists include more than 300 vascular plant species. A strange assortment of alien taxa has appeared in the area over time.
Asarum europaeum, Campanula latifolia and Symphytum officinale were probably early invaders in the storage field. Also e.g. Cirsium oleraceum, Lotus corniculatus var. fallax and Veronica longifolia growing by the coal track probably arrived even earlier. Among other early incomers are many species common in several railway areas in S Finland, e.g. Artemisia campestris, Chaenorhinum minus, Medigaco lupulina, Trifolium arvense and T. aureum, which have also spread to the actual mill areas in Voikkaa. Anthemis tinctoria, Hyoscyamus niger, Melilotus albus and Verbascum thapsus probably came with waste soil.
Imported Russian timber has had a strong influence on the floristic composition of the vegetation in Voikkaa railway yard. A large quantity of birch timber was imported from Russia in spring 2008 before a rise in customs duties. The timber was stored in the railway yard and all storage areas in the surroundings for a whole year. A large number of viable seeds were probably shed from the bark. After this the area was graded with bulldozers in August 2009, which may also have brought seeds to the soil surface from an older seed bank.
In summer 2010 Cytisus scoparius, Dianthus deltoides, Genista tinctoria and Jasione montana were found in the railway yard for the first time. Subsequent summers brought still more new taxa, many of which were difficult for an amateur botanist to identify. Among them were Anisantha tectorum, Carex hirta, Corynephorus canescens, Gypsophila muralis, Juncus tenuis, Lactuca serriola, Scleranthus perennis and Torilis japonica.
It is difficult to judge the sources of the alien flora imported with Russian timber in 2008. Many of the species growing at the sites of the timber storage heaps could have their origin partly from the surroundings of St. Petersburg, and partly from more remote areas in Central Russia closer to Moscow, although some taxa, e.g. Cytisus scoparius and Genista tinctoria, grow mainly in more southern areas.
Kettunen, T. 2015: Kirkiruohoista Savonlinnan seudulla. – Lutukka 31(1): 27–31
Two kinds of Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae) in Savonlinna area, SE Finland
Eight populations of Gymnadenia conopsea were studied in 2012 and 2014 in Savonlinna town and the neighbouring Rantasalmi parish. Four of the populations represented tall, white-flowered plants (in total 86 individuals) and the others smaller, red-flowered plants (69 individuals). The height of plants, length of spikes, number of flowers and width of the second lowest leaf were measured, and the period of maximum flowering was estimated on the basis of regular counts on each individual of the number of buds, flowers in full bloom and flowers starting to wither. Plants in the white-flowered populations were markedly taller, with greater number of flowers and longer inflorescences and their maximum flowering occurred in mid-July, 7–10 days later than in the red-flowered populations. The morphological characters measured of the white-flowered populations match quite well measurements from Central European populations, determined as G. densiflora, in this paper treated as G. conopsea subsp. densiflora. However, white flower colour is not considered indicative for G. densiflora in Central Europe. The morphological characters measured for red-flowered plants match G. conopsea s.str. Also the difference in the flowering time between the two taxa is notable, even though smaller in Savonlinna than in more southern areas. On the other hand, no clear ecological differences seem to occur in Savonlinna between the red- and white-flowered populations, but in spite of that they have remained distinct.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 31(1): 10–12
Summaries (in English)
Uotila, P. 2014: Isovesirikkokeruiden historiaa. – Lutukka 30(1): 3–15
The history of the Finnish herbarium collections of Elatine alsinastrum
All herbarium specimens of Elatine alsinastrum (Elatinaceae) collected from Finland were studied from 8 Finnish, 5 Swedish and 6 Norwegian main herbaria. There are few specimens from the 1700s and early 1800s and almost all are in Swedish herbaria UPS, S and LD. They were sent to Sweden directly by the collectors or by professors of the Royal Academy of Turku, at that time the only university in Finland and enjoying close contacts with Uppsala. Obviously there were several specimens also in the herbarium of the Academy, but the herbarium, as well as most of the university, was burnt down in the Great Fire of Turku in 1827.
About half of the herbarium sheets represent different collections (differing in place, date or collector), and the others are duplicates. Practically all specimens were collected by Finns. The main collectors and the distribution of their specimens in Nordic Herbaria are listed. Elatine alsinastrum is a Finnish rarity among Nordic vascular plants and therefore much collected, so the numbers of specimens/sheets in Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian herbaria are exceptionally large, altogether 658 sheets. The numerous duplicate specimens were collected for the Exchange Club of Herbarium Specimens in Helsinki in the 1880s–1910s and for similar clubs in Sweden. They were mostly distributed to the members of the clubs, who, or their heirs, later donated the specimens to official herbaria. Reduced collecting due to the First and Second World Wars can be seen, and later collecting activity decreased generally. The slightly greater number of specimens from the 1980s and 1990s is due to floristic studies by the Botanical Society in Tampere and to the compiling of inventories of threatened plants. The gradual decrease of E. alsinastrum specimens also reflects the rapidly increased rarity of the species, which is caused by severe changes in land use and the abandonment of old agricultural practices, which created small, more or less temporary puddles, pools, ditches and other water bodies suitable for the species.
Marjakangas, E.-L. & Raatikainen, K. J. 2014: Noidanlukot suurennuslasin alla. – Lutukka 30(1): 16–24
Moonworts under the microscope
The seven species of moonworts (genus Botrychium of family Ophioglossaceae) occurring in Finland are all declining. Five of the species are red-listed and two species are classified as near-threatened in the 2010 Red List of Finnish species. The most important reason behind the endangerment is habitat overgrowing and loss caused by the cessation of traditional management of meadows which has led to the fragmentation of moonwort populations and reduced the sizes of remaining populations. Beside traditional rural biotopes, moonworts are also met in natural habitats with regular disturbance (e.g. flood shores and fell meadows). Gathering follow-up data of the species and their populations is difficult since the species are very inconspicuous in their appearance, and there is great variation in the emergence of individuals between the growing seasons. In a new research project conducted in the University of Jyväskylä data of moonwort occurrences is collected in order to estimate the perceptivity, population dynamics, and the probability of extinction debt facing the populations of the Finnish species.
Kääntönen, M. 2014: Metsälitukan kasvupaikan muutoksia Virroilla. – Lutukka 30(1): 25–28
Cardamine flexuosa in Virrat, South Häme
Cardamine flexuosa is rare and endangered in Finland. It has only eight extant localities in the country. It was found in the municipality of Virrat, South Häme in 1998, on wet and soft spring-effected surfaces on the lower slope of the Ylisenhuhdanmäki hill. In 2003, another stand was found along a spring brook on a stretch of ca. 200 m. The population size was estimated to be ca. 700 plants. Because the species is under strict protection in Finland, a nature reserve was created to protect the population. Nevertheless, a forest cut was extended to the locality in 2013, and more trees were felled by the wind. Part of the population was thus exposed to full sun, and part of the spring waters were now running away from the plants in a newly excavated ditch. Cardamine flexuosa was now growing on a stretch of ca. 20 m, the population size had decreased to ca. 180 plants, and the population was threatened by extinction in spite of the protection. In the vicinity, also Carex appropinquata and C. acutiformis grow as relics of a warmer climatic period, similarly depending on nutrient-rich spring waters. Their habitats are situated inside a Natura 2000 area.
Särkkä, J. 2014: Muukalaistädyke Suomessa. – Lutukka 30(1): 29–31
Veronica peregrina in Finland
Veronica peregrina has been known as a weed in the Botanic Garden of the university in Helsinki 1907–1953 and again since 1990. Both ssp. peregrina and ssp. xalapensis and their hybrid are known from the garden, but most herbarium specimens belong to the latter subspecies. Since 1999, the species has been found in 14 localities in the biogeographical provinces of Varsinais-Suomi, Uusimaa, Satakunta, North Savo, Central Ostrobothnia and Inari Lapland, representing 13 squares of the 10 × 10 km2 grid used for floristic mapping in Finland. The species seems to be spreading from and between market gardens and nurseries, where most records have been made. All the new findings represent ssp. peregrina.
Summaries (in English)
Särkkä, J. 2014: Lehtotaponlehden luontainen esiintymä Uudellamaalla. – Lutukka 30(2): 35–36
A native occurrence of Asarum europaeum in the biogeographical province of Uusimaa
Native occurrences of Asarum europaeum have been known only from one limited area in Finland, in the municipality of Iitti, South Häme. The distribution area covers in total ca. 50 hectares in five subareas along the valleys of River Taasianjoki and its tributaries. The area is in the proximity to the border between the biogeographical provinces of South Häme and Uusimaa, but the species has not been found from the latter province in spite of several attempts.
The species is here reported as native from the municipality of Elimäki, Uusimaa. The locality is situated ca. 3 km away from the closest occurrences in Iitti. Asarum grows here in several dozen patches at the area of ca. 2 hectares. The habitat is very similar to that in the earlier known localities, i.e. luxuriant spruce forest with several exacting vascular plant species.
Asarum is also commonly cultivated in Finland. It has been reported as an escape from or remnant of cultivation in several places in Uusimaa, as well as the provinces of Varsinais-Suomi, South Häme, South Ostrobothnia and Oulu Ostrobothnia.
Hinneri, S. 2014: Ketohanhikin alalajit eteläisellä Selkämerellä. – Lutukka 30(2): 37–46
The subspecies of Potentilla anserina in the archipelago of southern Bothnian Sea
The silverweed (Potentilla anserina) consists of two subspecies in the archipelago and coastal areas of southern Bothnian Sea: ssp. anserina, a widespread plant of temperate origin growing in natural and man-made habitats, and ssp. groenlandica, a hemerophobic plant of arctic origin confined to exposed sites of outermost islands.
The subspecies groenlandica is ecologically confined to a narrow belt between seaside meadows rich in halophytes and suprasaline salt-sensitive crowberry and juniper heaths. This subspecies prefers surf shores having gravel layers intermingled with sand and organic debris.
Whereas ssp. groenlandica is self-compatible, it is pollen donator in the direction to the self-incompatible ssp. anserina. Owing to this one-way gene flow the former will stay invariable and will have a narrow ecological amplitude, but the latter has developed into a multiform plant occuring in a great variety of habitats.
At the first sight, the morphological variation of anserina populations seems to be of random nature. Population analyses made along transects from a coastland area through the archipelago zones will reveal a continuous chain of fairly similar growth forms growing in seaside meadows. This biotype is detectable on roadsides and other man-made sites of old villages, too.
A careful analysis of diagnostic features will detect that plants of coastal areas are fairly intact whereas many populations in the outer archipelago are contaminated by ssp. groenlandica. The seashore meadow ecotype, in this broad sense, is the basic biotype of ssp. anserina originating in early Post-glacial period (Rousi 1965), but, in addition, there are some phenotypically distinguishable ecotypes or local races confined to marginal biotopes: (1) a large- and upright-leaved ecotype of stone-rich shores having hollows filled by drift soil and organic litter; it is a common race from continent to outermost islands (2) a slender, prostrate and very narrow-leaved ecotype of recently deposited seaside sands (3) a glossy and thin-leaved ecotype of drift sand and plant litter deposits at the upper edge of seaside meadows.
In addition there are detectable growth forms representing random variation, but the amount of such populations may be tolerable.
Hinneri, S. 2014: Keltalehdokki leviää eteläisen Selkämeren saaristoihin. – Lutukka 30(2): 47–51
Platanthera chlorantha spreading northward in the southern Gulf of Bothnia
Greater butterfly orchid (Platanthera chlorantha) is known as characteristic of wooded meadows with ash (Fraxinus excelsior), maple (Acer platanoides) and hazel (Corylus avellana) in the SW archipelago of Finland, especially in Åland. On uninhabited, rocky islands of outer archipelago areas, especially in the northern part of its range, the orchid is to be found also in large crevices, weathering deposits under rocky walls and between stones on hillsides provided the sites have nutrient-rich crumb or litter mull covering.
Owing to the recent warming up and prolongation of growing seasons Greater butterfly orchid is spreading northward into the archipelagos of the southern Bothnian Sea. The extension of the range of the ash woods and the orchid will take place hand in hand so that the recently realized protection program of ash-rich woods is able to include all occurrences of the species.
Excluding the autonomous province of Åland, the Greater butterfly orchid is protected in Finland. This is important due to the very small amount of flowering plants in the great majority of its occurrences. On the other hand, the orchid is not a threatened species, since it prefers uninhabited, rather small islands accessible only with difficulty. In addition, the orchid populations are in small glades in the depths of woods or shrub thickets, sometimes also in hollows of rocky slopes.
Ranta, P. 2014: Keravan punakämmekät uuteen kotiin – kokemuksia siirtoistutuksesta. – Lutukka 30(2): 52–55
Finding a new home for Early Marsh-orchid in Kerava, Southern Finland
Early Marsh-orchid (Dactylorhiza incarnata) is relatively common in Northern Finland, but rare in the south. A new locality was found in 1997 in connection with the floristic survey of the town of Kerava (biogeographical province of Uusimaa). The new urban locality – a humid roadside meadow is not typical for the species, which normally grows in fens and mires.
Monitoring of the new locality started immediately. Encroaching Salix bushes were identified as a threat for the orchid and yearly thinning out of the bushes was started. The management proved to be effective and the number of orchids started to increase.
However, the National Road Administration announced a plan to widen the road and the survival of the locality became uncertain. It was decided to transplant the orchids to a new locality. Finally a suitable locality – brookside with a small pond – was found a few kilometres south of the old one. In June 2009 the orchids were transplanted.
The transplanted orchids have survived the first five years in the new locality with some fluctuations. The year 2012 was critical because of the flooding of the brook. Most of the plants were submerged, but this was more of a problem for the botanists than plants. More individuals were found already the next year. Also in this new locality the fight against the Salix bushes is necessary.
A new and more flexible and pragmatic approach is needed for transplantation of endangered plants. The administrative ”red tape” has to be reconsidered.
Ahokas, H. 2014: Tellima kotiutumassa viljelykarkulaisena Etelä-Suomeen? – Lutukka 30(2): 56–59
Occurrences of Tellima grandiflora in southern Finland
A previously unknown occurrence of Tellima grandiflora, a North American species, was shown in a luxuriant forest environment in Medvastö, Kirkkonummi (Uusimaa) in the S coastal Finland. The species has probably arrived unintentionally and occurred there possibly since the early 1900s. Spread by seeds from ornamentals, T. grandiflora was additionally found in Espoo and Helsinki (Uusimaa). The first known occurrence of T. grandiflora, naturalized in a luxuriant forest on Island Kakskerta (Varsinais-Suomi) was described in 1949. The species was also found in Vantaa (Uusimaa) in 2000. In the course of time, T. grandiflora has potential to become an established alien species in Finland. It is commonly cultivated as an ornamental and it has been found to thrive as far north as Oulu. It produces plentiful seeds, which, moreover, can apparently stay long dormant when deep in soil.
Books – Lutukka 30(2): 59–61
Summaries (in English)
Rautapää, M.: 2014: Kesämaksaruohosta kurhoon, kilometri maantien reunaa Luhangassa. – Lutukka 30(3): 67–76
Several threatened species found from the sides of a one-kilometer-long stretch of road in Central Finland
A survey of the roadside flora was conducted in Central Finland in 2005–2009, and a special hot-spot area for threatened and rare species was found in Luhanka Parish, near the centre of the parish. After the survey the most interesting site, a stretch of road one kilometer long, has been visited regularly since 2010. During these inventories several new threatened species were found from roadsides, including Cynoglossum officinale, Jasione montana and Carlina biebersteinii. Other interesting species include Anthemis tinctoria, Bunias orientalis, Campanula cervicaria, C. trachelium, Dianthus deltoides, Echium vulgare, Epipactis helleborine, Lathyrus sylvestris, Myrrhis odorata, Sedum annuum, Trifolium aureum and T. spadiceum.
Individuals of Carlina biebersteinii were unusually lush with branched stems and many heads, up to 37, prompting the question whether the plants might be of foreign origin. Moreover the number of threatened and rare species found in this relatively small area is exceptionally high, raising the further question of the origin of all of these species. There is no direct evidence for seed banks, self-dispersal or deliberate sowing. The road was improved in late 2010 but the majority of the species already existed before that. An optical cable was inserted in the roadside in late 2012 and this accelerated dispersal of the species. The gardens of the houses nearby have not been examined for planted species. Some local inhabitants have been questioned but no evidence of deliberate sowing emerged.
The roadside is quite luxuriant over a much greater distance and the forests beside the road also host several interesting vascular plants. In addition, several threatened moss species, almost certainly not sown, have been found in the area. Apparently the bedrock is very favourable for plants. The real cause of the rich flora remains unknown.
Väre, H. 2014: Kaaripiippo ja tankeapiippo – arvoituksellinen lajipari. – Lutukka 30(3): 77–83
Luzula arcuata and L. confusa (Juncaceae) – a cryptic pair of species in North Finland
Luzula arcuata and L. confusa are closely related species, which have an extensive sympatric distribution in subarctic and arctic regions, and also in Finland. They have often been treated as subspecies, as in the latest Field Flora of Finland, but as species in most recent major floras. Sterile hybrids with deformed inflorescences and capsules and very poor seed production are common in Finland. On these grounds it is proposed that L. arcuata and L. confusa should be treated as separate species. The new morphological and ecological descriptions of the species are based on Finnish herbarium specimens and literature.
Especially in older field and literature records these taxa have been generally identified as Luzula arcuata s.lat. and only some of them have been documented by herbarium specimens. Accordingly a combined distribution map including both L. arcuata and L. confusa is given. Since the year 2000 I have kept the taxa separate in my field work in the far northwest of Finland, where both species are frequent and abundant. The Finnish distributions of both species are given on maps based on the herbarium specimens and my field data since 2000.
Järvinen, V. 2014: Virginianmansikka Uudellamaalla – entä muualla Suomessa? – Lutukka 30(3): 84–85
New find of naturalized Fragaria virginiana from the Helsinki Region of Finland
The second find of naturalized Fragaria virginiana in the Helsinki Region is reported from Vantaa. Further finds from Southern Finland are expected, and the author encourages field botanists to pay attention to remnants of abandoned and escaped cultivated garden strawberries.
Saarinen, K., Miettinen, E. & Jantunen, J. 2014: Itäisiä tulokkaita Imatralla: imeläkurjenherne ja siperiankurjenpolvi. – Lutukka 30(3): 86–88
Astragalus glycyphyllos and Geranium sibiricum as railway immigrants in Imatra, South-East Finland
Two small but fertile stands of Astragalus glycyphyllos were found in August 2014 in the freight station Immola in Imatra, SE Finland. This critically endangered species of special conservation concern has only two indigenous populations in Finland, but it is known as an introduced apophyte in managed habitats such as landfills and road verges. We suppose that the new population at Imatra, near the eastern border of Finland, is most likely due to immigration of seeds from Russia. Geranium sibiricum, another eastern railway immigrant, was noted at the same time in the main railway station at Imatra, some eight kilometres southwest of Immola. Both species have only some ten previous records each from Finland.
Hæggström, C.-A. & Hæggström, E. 2014: Myöhään kukkivia kasveja Ahvenanmaalla. – Lutukka 30(3): 89–93
Late-flowering vascular plants in the Åland Islands, South-West Finland
Fairly warm late autumns and early winters (November – January) occur every now and then in SW Finland. We observed vascular plants in flower during two periods, 31 December 2006 to 1 January 2007 and 29 December 2013 to 1 January 2014. During the first period 12 and during the latter period 30 flowering taxa were seen. In all, 32 taxa were recorded. Two of them were garden plants and two garden escapes. More than half of the taxa were weeds and ruderals. Seven taxa are common meadow plants and one, Ranunculus ficaria, is mainly a species of lush deciduous stands. The most common plants in flower were Poa annua and Stellaria media. Other common taxa were Lamium album, Senecio vulgaris, Tripleurospermum inodorum and Taraxacum spp. The most spectacular species were Euphorbia peplus, Veronica persica, Cardamine hirsuta and Ranunculus ficaria. In both periods the fairly warm weather ended after the 10th of January. Most of these taxa have already been recorded in other publications as flowering in South Finland during warm late autumns and early winters.
Books – Lutukka 30(3): 93–94
Summaries (in English)
Kunttu, P. 2014: Suomen suurin vuorimunkkiesiintymä Kemiönsaaren Taalintehtaalla. – Lutukka 30(4): 99–103
The largest population of Sheep’s bit scabious (Jasione montana) in Finland
The largest population of Jasione montana in Finland is at the village of Dalsbruk on the island of Kimitoön in south-western Finland. The occurrence has been known since 1853. The distribution and abundance of the species were studied at Dalsbruk during the summer and autumn of 2014. Altogether 1166 individuals were found at 15 separate growing sites, all of which were rocky and dry grassland patches facing south and south-west. The number of extant occurrences in Finland is about 50, but the population is declining, e.g., because of overgrowth of meadows, house construction and mechanical wear of soil and bedrock. J. montana has been classified as vulnerable in Finland.
Kämäräinen, H. 2014: Kesän 2014 kasvihavaintoja länsirannikolta ja Hämeenlinnasta. – Lutukka 30(4): 104–109
Floristic notes from the provinces of Varsinais-Suomi, Satakunta and South Häme of Finland
Lactuca tatarica has been growing in Turku Region since 2013, along the railway in the harbour of Naantali Granary. This is the first known find of the species in the province of Varsinais-Suomi. The accompanying species include Amsinckia micrantha, Lappula squarrosa, Consolida regalis and Sisymbrium loeselii.
A colony several square metres wide of Rumex thyrsiflorus was found in 2014 in St Pori, Reposaari, in an old ballast area, together with, e.g., Cichorium endivia. R. thyrsiflorus was not previously known from Reposari.
Cichorium intybus has been growing at least since the early 2000s in South-Häme, Hämeenlinna, close to the railway station. It can be considered established there on a gravel bank, as well as in some other places along the railway banks in the vicinity.
Trifolium dubium was found in 2014 for the second time in Hämeenlinna and in the Province of South-Häme. A colony several meters long was growing along the roadside, on a stone wall.
Ranta, P. 2014: Luhtaorvokki palautettiin Tampereelle. – Lutukka 30(4): 110–113
Reintroduction of an endangered violet, Viola uliginosa, in Tampere, Finland
Viola uliginosa is a strictly protected, endangered species in Finland at the northern limit of its distribution. It was found in Finland as early as 1851. Subsequently the number of coexistent localities increased to fourteen in the 1940s but then the decline began and has continued until today, with now only six localities remaining in Finland. One of the losses was the locality in the city of Tampere, where Viola uliginosa flourished in the 1930s. In spite of the species being protected a house was built on the site, and the violet disappeared in 1975. However, part of the population was transplanted elsewhere and it has survived ex situ until today in the Botanical Garden of the University of Oulu. The idea of reintroducing the species in Tampere began to attract support, and finally in 2013 seeds were collected for germination in Kumpula Botanic Garden (Helsinki). The results were more than satisfactory and in September 2014 forty luxuriant seedlings were transported back to Tampere. The site, an Alnus incana dominated flooding lakeshore, will be officially protected in 2015.
Haatanen, M., Ali-Raatikainen, M. & Klemola, H. 2014: Kesän 2014 Luonnonkukkien päivän retkillä haisteltiin valkolehdokkia. – Lutukka 30(4): 114–116
The Nordic Day of Wild Flowers 2014 in Finland
The Day of Wild Flowers was held on June 15th 2014 in all Nordic countries, and for the 11th time in Finland. Almost one hundred guided botanical field excursions were organized all over the country with ca. 1700 participants. For each Day of Wild Flowers a ”species of the year” is selected, and in 2014 it was Platanthera bifolia.
Uotila, P. 2014: Hattulan Lehijärven näkinpartaisia ja muita vesikasveja. – Lutukka 30(4): 117–122
Finds of Charophytes and other aquatic plants in Lake Lehijärvi, South Finland
The seven-square-kilometre Lake Lehijärvi is a Finnish lake with an exceptionally rich aquatic flora, which has been inventoried several times since 1932. The most recent inventory was in 1996. Small parts of the shores were studied in 2013 by diving and from boat or canoe, and in 2014 by wading along the shallow shores. In 2014 the main purpose was to try to find localities of the alga Chara braunii, which is rare and vulnerable in Finland. Found for the first time in the lake in 1973, C. braunii was detected in 2014 at five sites of the studied 12 stretches of shallow shore. Colonies varied between 2 and 100 plants and were located in 0–15 cm deep water on fine sand – gravel bottom with a thin ooze layer. Nitella wahlbergiana is more common than N. flexilis (coll.). In addition, Chara globularis was found in 2014 as a new record for the lake. Among vascular plants, Lemna turionifera was a new record for the lake in 2013. Potamogeton crispus has much increased since the 1990s, while on the other hand Elodea canadensis seems to have decreased.
Saarinen, K. & Kotanen, E. 2014: Juurtokaislan ensilöytö Etelä-Savossa – lintujen tuliaisia Kannakselta? – Lutukka 30(4): 124–126
Scirpus radicans discovered in Lappeenranta, SE Finland
Scirpus radicans, an endangered wetland species in Finland, grows in only two remote areas in the country, in North Karelia and in the south-eastern coastal area. A small population was found in September 2014 halfway between these areas, at the town of Lappeenranta. Approximately ten tussocks were recorded from the shore of Lake Saimaa. They were growing on a new sandy cape of filling earth formed in January 2013 due to the failure and repair of the local sewage water pumping station. Based on information from the contractors, it is unlikely that the species had arrived with the soil or machinery. Thus the population may well have originated from seeds dispersed by water birds, most likely from the Vuoksi river system, where there are several populations of Scirpus radicans on the Russian side of the border. According to local residents, water birds were abundant in the melt water during the spill of sewage in the winter of 2012–13.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 30(4): 122–123
Summaries (in English)
Kekki, T. 2013: Evakko, ruotsin roska, lapin orvokki ja pusu – täpläapinankukka pohjoisessa. — Lutukka 29(1): 3–7.
Seep Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) in North Finland
Seep Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) is native to western North America from Alaska to northern Mexico. It was introduced as an ornamental plant in Europe in the early 1900th century. Since then it has often strayed into stream banks and other wet places all around North and Central Europe, but it has usually not been considered as a dangerous invasive species. In Finnish Lapland Seep Monkeyflower has been cultivated since the late 1900th century and especially after the Second World War. The history of Seep Monkeyflower and the ways how it has naturalized in Lapland are discussed in this article. Two new localities are reported from Rovaniemi (Outer Ostrobothnia), as new to the province.
Juutinen, R. 2013: Sammalien levinneisyystaulukot päivitetty. — Lutukka 29(1): 8.
An updated checklist of Finnish bryophytes
An updated checklist of the bryophyte species in Finland with information on their distribution has been published. In this 2012 version, seven new species for the country have been added, and one species has been removed.
Särkkä, J. 2013: Pikkuluikka, merihapsikka ja merihaura Perämerellä. — Lutukka 29(1): 9–14.
New records of Eleocharis parvula, Ruppia maritima and Najas marina at their northern limit in Finland
Eleocharis parvula is reported from 11 localities in the northern part of the biogeographical province of Central Ostrobotnia. The earlier northern distribution limit of the species in Finland was in the southern part of the province. The plant is difficult to find due to its tiny size and it is easily mixed up with E. acicularis. However, they seem to grow on different kinds of soils, E. acicularis on soft mud and E. parvula mostly on more sandy soils. E. parvula flowers rather rarely in the area, and it seems that flowering is connected with a prolonged lowered sea water level. The species has recently been found also in Oulu Ostrobothnia and Outer Ostrobothnia as new to these provinces (both still missing in Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998).
Ruppia maritima and Najas marina were found in the Rahja archipelago, Kalajoki, ca. 50 and 35 km north of their earlier known northern limits. Both species are regionally threatened in the area. Ruppia was found only in one locality, as two very small colonies. Najas was found from two localities. In the other locality, the species was abundant and the colonies extend over the boundary of two floristic 10 × 10 km2 grid squares, causing two dots on distribution maps. The other occurrence was rather scares, but it seems likely that the species might be found also elsewhere in the area.
The reason for these new finds might partly be due to the climatic change, but this is only speculation so far. As well it could be due to more systematic floristic observation in the area.
Uotila, P. 2013: Kaarlo Linkola ja vesikasvitutkimuksemme historiaa. — Lutukka 29(1): 15–27.
Kaarlo Linkola and history of aquatic plant studies in Finland
Kaarlo Linkola (1888–1942), Professor of Botany in University of Helsinki in 1925–1942, launched in the early 1930’s a program to study aquatic flora and vegetation in Finnish lakes and other water bodies. Under his tutelage about a dozen graduate theses and three doctoral theses dealing with the topic were completed. He himself had studied flora and vegetation in four lakes in the archipelago near Turku already in 1908. In 1932 he studied three lakes in South Savo and in 1932 and 1935 twenty lakes in South Häme in the surroundings of the cities Hämeenlinna, Valkeakoski and Tampere.
He made all descriptions of the South Häme lakes thorough and all in similar format, including aquatic flora of vascular plants, bryophytes and Charophytes with frequency and abundance values and description of their associations in each lake. Unfortunately, these lake descriptions remained unpublished. Later, all these lakes have been studied again, few of them even several times. However, the intervals between studies have been too long for drawing conclusions of changes which have taken place and of their reasons. In this article a list of the lakes studied by Linkola in South Häme in 1932 and 1935 is given with information on date of his field work and years of later inventories with name of researchers, and with references to most important publications dealing with the aquatic flora of the lake. Short descriptions of the aquatic flora by Linkola, with comparison to more recent inventories are given for eight lakes; the other 12 lakes have been treated in another paper in 2013 or in earlier publications.
The lakes are mostly quite small and most of them have been lowered in the 1900s. They have been eutrophied because of the strong human impact, but some have been even naturally eutrophic. New species have spread to most of the lakes. Especially important are Typha latifolia and Elodea canadensis, which were almost unknown in the area in the 1930s, but now they are among the most dominant species in the lakes. Other new species in many lakes are Glyceria maxima, Ceratophyllum demersum, Spirodela polyrhiza, Potamogeton crispus, Riccia fluitans, Ricciocarpos natans, all telling of increased eutrophy. Also, Nymphaea spp. has become more abundant. Partially this has been due to eutrophy, but in addition because of the decline of the populations of Ondatra zibethicus. Muskrat was just introduced and rapidly colonizing the lakes in the late 1920s and early 1930s and at that time effectively fed white water lilies.
On the other hand, especially isoetids have decreased significantly, but even some submerged species, which are not too good competitors in very eutrophic waters (Callitriche hermaphroditica, Potamogeton compressus and P. praelongus) have decreased. Of dominant species Equisetum fluviatile has lost much of its importance. Stratiotes aloides became more abundant in some lakes, but has recently decreased.
Alanko, P. 2013: Mikrosieniä keräämään kasviharrastuksen lomassa. — Lutukka 29(1): 28–31.
Take up collecting microfungi
Observing and collecting microfungi is largely neglected by phanerogam botanists. However, it is a fascinating hobby, and after some practice it is rather easy to make new good finds. This article encourages and advices the readers by sharing some of the author’s experiences during the latest 10 years.
Summaries (in English)
Suominen, J. 2013: Talvivaaran humala ja Kivaloiden hukkapuro. – Lutukka 29(2): 35–38.
Features and finding history of some North Finnish localities of native hop (Humulus lupulus)
In Finland, hop was cultivated during centuries for brewing and as an object of taxation. Only female plants were useful for the purpose, and the cultivation relicts are females as well. However, hop is also native in Finland, north to the Arctic Circle. It is found on seashores and, in the inland, mainly in brookside grass-herb forests as an obvious relict from the seashore phase thousands of years ago and accompanied by many rare plants of rich woods. The native hop occurrences consist often of both sexes but the old relicts far inland are usually either females or males. Local people are often aware of hops in the wilderness, and numerous brooks and ponds have been named after the hop. To a great extent this helped botanists to reach and study the scattered hop groves.
The brook grove on Talvivaara hill in Sotkamo (province of Kainuu) is the northernmost one hosting both female and male hop. It is also the most elevated one, just below a pond at 294 metres above the sea level. The two northernmost hop groves lie in Rovaniemi (Outer Ostrobothnia). These are remarkable also for the rare accompanied species, including highly isolated northern occurrences of some of them. In this region, there is a third hop grove as well, visited over a century ago but lost thereafter. Its probable site is proposed for continued search.
Juutinen, R., Kypärä, T., Lehkonen, E., Raatikainen, K. & Peltonen, K. 2013: Sammalia, kalkkia ja toveruutta – Jyväskylän sammaltajat Käsivarren erämaassa. – Lutukka 29(2): 39–50.
Bryologists of Jyväskylä in Käsivarsi wilderness area (EnL)
Excursion was made on foot between 28.7. and 4.8.2012. This travel report describes impressions and findings from Urttašvaggi, Ánnjaloanji, Doskaljavri, Doskalharji and Bumbovárri.
Kunttu, P. & Kunttu, S. 2013: Tuleeko jättituijasta haitallinen vieraslaji? Särkisalon Petun tapaus. – Lutukka 29(2): 51–54.
Will Western Redcedar become an invasive alien species in Finland? Case study from island of Pettu, SW Finland
Thuja plicata, commonly called Western redcedar, is an evergreen coniferous tree native to western North America. It was introduced to Finland in the 1870’s as a garden tree. This article presents how Western redcedar has spread outside of the old plantations in the island of Pettu in the southwestern archipelago of Finland (biogeographical province of Finland Proper). The species was introduced to Pettu in the 1930’s. In 1965, in a botanical inventory the size of the plantations was 20 ares and the biggest trees were 13–14-meter high with a diameter at breast height 18–20 cm.
A new inventory in Pettu was made in 2010 and 2011. The size of the habitats was now 2.5 hectares and the total number of trees 1477. The number of trees exceeding 5 cm diameter at breast height was 160. The biggest tree was ca 25 m high with a diameter at breast height 75 cm. It is the biggest Western redcedar known from Finland.
Finland’s first national strategy on invasive alien species was published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in 2012. Based on the experience in Pettu where Western redcedar had grown well and spread outside of the old plantations, the species was considered a potentially or locally harmful alien terrestrial plant species.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 29(2): 55–59.
- Cotula coronopifolia was found in Arabianranta, Helsinki in 2012 as a new alien species to Finland. The locality is known as a pasture of the Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), and it seems possible that the plant has been brought here by migrating geese, in the same way as was speculated by Widgren (2003) in Sweden. Also Juncus inflexus was found in the same locality. The species is rare and casual in Finland, and most earlier records had been made before 1960, with only one later find. – Markku Ojala
- The populations of Lathraea squamaria have declined in Finland due to building and forestry activities, and the species is regarded as vulnerable. It grows mainly in luxuriant deciduous or mixed forests in the Aland Islands, Varsinais-Suomi (eastern part) and Uusimaa (western part). The easternmost occurrence of the species in Finland is in Sipoo, eastern Uusimaa. This locality has mistakenly been given as two dots on distribution maps (Lindgren 2012, Lampinen & Lahti 2013). The population has been regarded as locally extinct in lack of recent records. The locality was visited 21.5.2013. A total of 156 flowering shoots were found in an area of c. 115 m² in a dense young, luxuriant mixed forest. The population seems vital, and there is no immediate threat against it at the moment. – Mikko Piirainen & Pirkko Piirainen
- Cardamine corymbosa is reported as a new introduction in Finland. Ca. 20 small plants were found in the autumn 2012 in a macadamized parking plot inside a nursery area in Raahe (Central Ostrobothnia). The species was probably introduced as seed in the pots of some conifers imported from Haaren, the Netherlands in April 2012. The conifers were soon transferred to another nursery in Oulu, but the species was not found there at least in late 2012. – Jari Särkkä
- Piirainen, M.: Luonnon monimuotoisuus on edelleen uhattuna, s. 66
- Kämäräinen, H.: Örön kasviaarteet ja -arvoitukset, s. 67–87
- Saarinen, K., Jantunen, J. & Miettinen, M.: Tuoksukirveli tuorein itälisä Imatran (ES) puuplaanin lajistoon, s. 88–91
- Rintanen, T.: Suominen, J., Satakunnan kasvit, s. 91–92
- Kunttu, P. & Rivasto, S.-M.: Taalintehtaan (V) suomukasta lisätietoa, s. 93
- Kunttu, P.: Neidonkieli runsastuu Taalintehtaalla (V), s. 93–94
- Särkkä, J.: Lehtoneidonvaippa Sastamalan Karkussa (St), s. 94–95
- Koistinen, J., Amnell, T. & Winberg, L.: Lehtoneidonvaippa Helsingin Kumpulassa (U), s. 95
- Piirainen, P. & Piirainen, M.: Lehtoneidonvaippa löytyi myös Vantaalta (U), s. 95
Summaries (in English)
Kämäräinen, H. 2013: Örön kasviaarteet ja -arvoitukset. – Lutukka 29(3): 67–87.
The special flora of Örö Island, NW Gulf of Finland
The island of Örö is located in the northwestern Gulf of Finland and belongs to the biogeographical province of Varsinais-Suomi and the municipality of Kemiönsaari. The island lies by the open sea at the outer edge of the archipelago, and has an area of 240 hectares. For a long time, Örö served as a summer pasture. Starting from 1915 when Finland still belonged to the Russian Empire, it was constructed as a part of the fortification chain to protect the navigable routes to St. Petersburg. The active military use – Finnish from 1918 on – continued till 2006. The island is still used by the army, and entry to the area is limited and allowed only by permission. Örö is especially known for its Lepidopteran fauna, which has been systematically studied for decades – 1 640 species are known from the island, many of them new invaders from the south.
Elytrigia juncea ssp. boreali-atlantica was found on Örö in 1937, and it is still growing in many sites along the long western sand shore of the island. Other remarkable species are e.g. Lepidium latifolium, Crambe maritima, Rosa sherardii, Potentilla anglica, Carex arenaria and Ammophila arenaria. During the latest 15–20 years, many new taxa have been found. Some of them are real rarities, which have been able to establish on the island. These include e.g. Pulsatilla pratensis, P. vulgaris, Armeria maritima ssp. elongata, Carlina vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, Dianthus arenarius ssp. borussicus, Genista tinctoria and Scabiosa ochroleuca. Other interesting but more common new taxa are e.g. Echium vulgare, Leonurus cardiaca ssp. villosus, Senecio jacobaea, Anthemis tinctoria, Medicago sativa ssp. falcata and Eupatorium cannabinum. A total of 418 taxa, including 397 species, have been recorded from Örö in the national floristic database of Finland.
Saarinen, K., Jantunen, J. & Miettinen, M. 2013: Tuoksukirveli tuorein itälisä Imatran (ES) puuplaanin lajistoon. – Lutukka 29(3): 88–91.
Chaerophyllum aromaticum discovered in SE Finland
In July 2013, we observed at least five large stands of Chaerophyllum aromaticum in a dry plain previously used for storage of timber nearby the Stora Enso pulp mills at Vuoksenniska, Imatra (South Savo). The species has been noted in Finland only once before, in Hyrynsalmi in 1954 – the record from Kajaani in Fröberg (2010) refers to cultivated plants. Among many eastern immigrant species in the locality at Imatra, such as Androsace filiformis, Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. baltica, Geranium sibiricum, Geum aleppicum and Cirsium oleraceum, this species has also arrived at the site along with the timber imported from adjacent Russia, stored in the plain between the late 1970s and 2001–2002. According to our annual visits in the site, C. aromaticum has emerged very recently from the seed bank, yet the soil has not been disturbed or the timber has not been handled in the site during the last decade.
We found also a small stand of Centaurium erythraea in the timber depot. In Finland, this is the first record of the species, which reaches the northern limits of its distribution area on the Karelian Isthmus, Russia. In Imatra, the species is clearly a new introduction.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 29(3): 93–95.
The westernmost known population of Lathraea squamaria in the biogeographical province of Varsinais-Suomi was monitored in 2010, 2011 and 2013. A new locality was found in the area in 2011, with a twofold population size. – Panu Kunttu & Sanna-Mari Rivasto
The population size of Echium vulgare in the village of Dalsbruk (Kimitoön, Varsinais-Suomi) increased from 1689 to 2780 plants between 2010 and 2013. The increase was partly due to digging of soil in connection of building activities, partly to increased awareness of the importance of the plant for some rare and threatened moth species. – Panu Kunttu
Epipactis helleborine was found in 2013 in Sastamala, eastern Satakunta, in a birch forest planted in the 1970s. Ca. 60 plants were found in an area of two ares, which probably means that the population has existed already for some time. The species is rare in the province and there are only a few recent records. – Jari Särkkä
Epipactis helleborine was found in Helsinki city area (Uusimaa) close to the Kumpula campus of the University of Helsinki, from a small meadow patch becoming overgrown by forest. There is only one recent record of the species from Helsinki before this one. – Jarmo Koistinen, Toni Amnell & Lars Winberg
Epipactis helleborine is reported from NE Vantaa, Uusimaa. One plant was found in a young birch forest in a former cultivated field in a place which has become covered with forest during the last few decades. This is the fourth record of the species in the City of Vantaa. – Pirkko Piirainen & Mikko Piirainen
- Piirainen, M.: Saako luontoa manipuloida? s. 98
- Kemppainen, E., Kaipiainen-Väre, H. & Ryttäri, T.: Luonnonsuojeluasetuksen rauhoitettujen ja uhanalaisten lajien luettelot päivitetty, s. 99–105
- Kääntönen, M.: Harsomatarasta ja muista väärennyksistä Tampereen seudulla, s. 106–110
- Laaka-Lindberg, S., Miranto, M., Ryttäri, T., Väre, H. & Hyvärinen, M.: Kasvien ex situ -suojelua ESCAPE-hankkeessa: uuden siemenpankin ensimmäiset kasvit, s. 111–117
- Artikkeli pdf-muodossa (1030 Kt)
- Ranta, P.: Kasviharrastajien retkeily ja seminaari Tampereen seudulla, s. 118–120
Horppila, P.: Havaintoja vankkasarasta Päijät-Hämeessä, s. 122–124
- Euroopan kasvikartaston osa 16 on ilmestynyt, s. 121
- Horppila, P.: Lettohernesara löytyi Heinolasta (EH), s. 124–125
- Piirainen, M.: Elven, R., Fremstad, E. & Pedersen, O. (toim.) 2013, Distribution maps of Norwegian vascular plants. IV The eastern and northeastern elements, s. 125–126
Summaries (in English)
Kemppainen, E., Kaipiainen-Väre, H. & Ryttäri, T. 2013: Luonnonsuojeluasetuksen rauhoitettujen ja uhanalaisten lajien luettelot päivitetty. – Lutukka 29(4): 99–105.
Lists of protected and threatened species in the Finnish Nature Conservation Decree has been updated
In Finland a species may be protected by legislation, and the protection is regulated under the Nature Conservation Act. According to the Act, picking of protected species is prohibited. A species may also be declared threatened and the most threatened ones can be placed under a strict protection order by the Nature Conservation Decree. Deterioration and destruction of an important habitat of a species under strict protection is prohibited. The decree is now updated (471/2013) based on the proposals given in the Finnish Red Data Book (Rassi et al. 2010). It came into force in the beginning of July in 2013 and includes the lists of protected and threatened species of Finland, excluding the autonomous province of Åland. The lists of protected vascular plants and Bryophytes were updated in 2009 (714/2009) and no changes were made in 2013. In every plant and fungi group several changes were made to the lists of threatened species and species placed under strict protection. The changes made to the lists of vascular plants are discussed here in detail. All protected vascular plants and plants under strict protection are listed in table 4. Changes in the lists of Bryophytes, Stoneworts, Fungi and Lichens are presented shortly, mainly giving some examples.
Kääntönen, M. 2013: Harsomatarasta ja muista väärennyksistä Tampereen seudulla – Lutukka 29(4): 106–110.
Galium schultesii and other floristic fakes in the Tampere area
Galium schultesii was found at Ylöjärvi in 2013, apparently sown on purpose after 2009. Other fake populations of rare taxa are known from the vicinity, e.g. Pulsatilla pratensis and Agrimonia procera. Plants have mainly been sown along the Tampere – Vaasa highway and in the surroundings of Lielahti railway station in Tampere. Other examples of sown taxa in Kaarila area at Tampere are e.g. Gratiola neglecta, Heracleum sphondyliun ssp. sphondylium, Rumex triangulivalvis and Isatis tinctoria, and in Tahmela area e.g. Cynoglossum officinale, Agrimonia procera and Cuscuta europaea, perhaps also Rumex obtusifolius ssp. sylvestris.
Sowing of new taxa in the wild has repeatedly been denounced as forgery and harmful for the study of plant geography. Seeds of exotic plants are sold in abundance today, and even city authorities or road constructors may sow them without consideration. Digital databases have made it easier to visit known populations of rare taxa. Unfortunately there are some individuals among amateur botanist, who don’t content themselves with digital photography but find it exciting to steal plants or there seeds for questionable purposes.
Laaka-Lindberg, S., Miranto, M., Ryttäri, T., Väre, H. & Hyvärinen, M. 2013: Kasvien ex situ -suojelua ESCAPE-hankkeessa: uuden siemenpankin ensimmäiset kasvit. – Lutukka 29(4): 111–117.
Ex-situ conservation of plants in the ESCAPE project: The first species stored in the new seedbank
ESCAPE (Ex-Situ Conservation of Finnish Native Plant Species) is a 5-year project funded by EU LIFE+ 2011 programme. The project aims to implement the national strategy and action plan for ex-situ conservation, develop ex-situ conservation methods, and encourage their wider use in plant conservation. A seedbank of threatened native plants was inaugurated in Kumpula Botanic Garden in Helsinki in mid-2013. The start was successful: The number of species (27) and different origins (37) exceeded what was planned for the first collecting season. The species collected are listed in table 1. The species are grouped in urgency classes 1–5 on the basis of priority index calculated for the red-listed species (see www.luomus.fi/escape). Representative species of each of these five groups are introduced: Artemisia campetris ssp. bottnica for the group 1 most urgently in need of ex-situ conservation, Pulsatilla patens for the group 2, Erigeron acer ssp. decoloratus for the group 3, which contained most of the species stored in the seedbank, Lychnis alpina var. serpentinicola for the group 4, and Leontodon hispidus representing the group 5, which includes also non red-listed species.
Horppila, P.: Havaintoja vankkasarasta Päijät-Hämeessä. – Lutukka 29(4): 122–124.
New localities of Carex riparia in South Häme
Three localities of Carex riparia are reported from the biogeographical province of South Häme. Two of them were found in Sysmä already in the 1980s by the author, but determinations were verified from specimens only in 2012. The other one is located shortly NE of the more or less continuous distribution area of the species and new for the south boreal Finnish Lakeland (region 2b in the areal division of locally threatened taxa in Finland). The third locality is in the southern part of the province in Kärkölä, where the species has earlier been known from only two localities.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 29(4): 124–125.
Carex viridula var. bergrothii is rare and regarded as vulnerable (VU) in Finland. Most of its known localities in the southern half of the country have been lost due to drainage of suitable rich fens. The plant was found in 2011 in Heinola, biogeographical province of South Häme in a wet fen at a lakeshore. This is the only known extant population of the taxon in the province. – Petri Horppila
Summaries (in English)
Vascular plants and urban ecology in the City of Tampere, S Finland
Tampere is the 3rd largest city in Finland, with its c. 213,000 inhabitants. It has an area of 690 km², 165 km² of which is covered by water. Tampere is located in the inland of S Finland, in the biogeographical province of South Häme.
The flora of the City of Tampere was systematically mapped in 1998–2010. The city proper (rural suburbs Aitolahti and Teisko excluded) was divided in 596 grid cells of 500 m × 500 m. The collected material consists of 210,000 observations of 1,225 plant species with habitat codes (37 codes) and estimates of abundance and frequency in the grid cell. All plants are included in the mapping. Plants in cultivation (ornamentals or economic plants) get a specific code which makes it easy to include or exclude them from the rest of the material.
The share of native species is 30.6 % (375 species), archaeophytes 10.9 % (134 species), neophytes 13.1 % (161 species) and cultivated plants 45.3 % (555 species). The maps in Fig. 15 depict the geographical distribution of each group of origin: the maps of natives and archaeophytes are roughly mirror images: natives in periphery, archaeophytes in populated areas. The neophytes are most abundant in the central parts of the city with railways and old settlement. Cultivated species occur mostly in domestic gardens, parks and decorative plantations at blocks of flats. The highest recorded number of species in a grid cell was 396 and lowest 34 (on the small treeless islet of Siilinkari in the Lake of Näsijärvi).
A prominent group among the neophytes is the Russian immigrants which arrived in Finland and Tampere when the railway connection was established between Tampere and Russia in 1876. Later, Russian troops were stationed in Tampere. Several of the Russian immigrant plants were naturalized in Tampere, like Berteroa incana, Echium vulgare, Bunias orientalis, Trifolium arvense and Convolvulus arvensis. Among older naturalized neophytes from the 1700s are Acorus calamus (medicinal plant) and Corydalis nobilis (ornamental).
Characteristic species for the City and region are Ulmus laevis, Sedum annuum, Callitriche hamulata, Carex pediformis and Myosoton aquaticum. Several southern species reach their northern limit at Tampere, like Corylus avellana, Polygonatum multiflorum and Anemone ranunculoides. Some species occur in the catchment area of Kokemäenjoki river, like Ceratophyllum demersum, Rorippa amphibia and Rumex hydrolapathum.
None of the observed plants has been found in every grid cell. Betula pendula (589), B. pubescens (586), Sorbus aucuparia (583), Epilobium angustifolium (580) and Salix caprea (578) are the five most common species. On the other hand, species which occur in 1 % of grid cells or less (1–6 cells) are considered as rare. There are 144 species in this category.
The material permits the evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas. In the city proper, there are seven official nature reserves, with a total area of 193 ha. They contain 375 species, 66.1 % of which are natives. Only 127 native species (33.9 % of the natives in Tampere) are not found in the reserves. The reserves are much less effective in protecting other groups of origin: of archaeophytes, 42.5 % and of neophytes 75.2 % are missing from the reserves. The composition of the flora of the reserves may be studied with the help of cumulative frequency curves. In Tampere, the curves are of concave type, which means that species in reserves are mostly common ones.
Rarity is not evenly distributed in the city. The proportion of rare species can be studied with the help of the rarity index. A previously unknown zone, rich in rare species, was detected in the eastern part of the city.
Ulvinen, T. 2012: Retki Puolangan (Kn) Naulaperälle – suippohärkylä parhaana saaliina. – Lutukka 28(1): 18–24.
A trip to Naulaperä in Puolanka parish, Kainuu biogeographical province
During a trip to Naulaperä in Puolanka parish, Kainuu biogeographical province, a protected rich fen (Ison Jänisjärven letto) with calcareous waters was visited. This is the southernmost site of Juncus triglumis and several rare mosses, e.g. Philonotis calcarea, Palustriella falcata and Leiocolea bantriensis in Finland. The exact locality of occurrences of several rare vascular plants and mosses was noted. In the neighbourhood, a protected herb-rich forest (Ison Jänisjärven lehto) was studied as a part of a km2 square of the Atlas of Finnish Vascular Plants system. In a steep slope of herb-rich deciduous forest, one specimen of Polystichum lonchitis was found as the first record of the species in the province. The plant has a few other localities as the result of ”long-distance-flights” from Scandinavian mountains in the southern and central parts of Finland. The rich flora on the protected herb-rich forest includes e.g. Cypripedium calceolus, Cicerbita alpina and Palustriella decipiens. From other parts of the atlas square e.g. Botrychium multifidum and Carex buxbaumii subsp. mutica were noted.
Juutinen, R., Hallman, J., Kypärä, T., Mäkelä, A. & Saari, V. 2012: Arktinen napakinnassammal löytynyt Pihtiputaalta. – Lutukka 28(1): 25–29.
Scapania spitsbergensis found in Central Finland
The arctic-alpine bryophyte Scapania spitsbergensis has been found in Central Finland, Pihtipudas (biogeographical province of North Häme). The species is very rare throughout the circumpolar region and grows almost exclusively in the upper oroarctic belt. Only a few locations in the world are known south of the Arctic Circle. Scapania spitsbergensis is endangered (EN) in Finland. A bryophyte sample labeled ”Scapania sp.” was collected during the survey of the moss flora of Central Finland in 1991. It was deposited in the Natural history section of Jyväskylä University Museum (JYV) and determined after 20 years as a species previously not at all represented in the collection. Two field excursions were made during 2011, aiming to find the species again from the field. The latter excursion was successful and two occurrences were found. The species was growing between large stones in a boulder field. Despite the vast area of suitable habitat in the surveyed site, the species was found to be rare. The case of Scapania spitsbergensis demonstrates clearly the importance of field surveys, the importance of preserving even partially determined samples into natural history museums and in general the role of natural history museums. Also, hardly accessible and putatively boring habitat types can be worth looking into.
Kunttu, S. 2012: Luonnonkukkien päivä kasvaa ja kukoistaa. – Lutukka 28(1): 30–31.
The Nordic Day of Wild Flowers 2011 in Finland
The Day of Wild Flowers was held on June 19th 2011 in all Nordic countries. In Finland 114 guided field excursions were organized all over the country with ca. 2600 participants.
Summaries (in English)
Väre, H. 2012: Tuntureittemme kissankäpälistä. – Lutukka 28(2): 35–48.
Pussytoes (Antennaria) in Finnish fjelds
There are six indigenous pussy toe (Antennaria) species in Finland, five of which (A. alpina, A. canescens, A. nordhageniana, A. porsildii, A. villifera) grow only in the northernmost mountain regions. The sixth one, A. dioica occurs in the whole country including mountains, and is not treated in greater detail here.
The author has studied mountain plants of Enontekiö in NW Finland since 1985. In this article more detailed distribution maps are given for the first time of the five solely oroarctic pussy toes in Enontekiö. Three of these are considered as threatened (VU or NT) due to their rarity in Finland and possible climate warming. Ecology, taxonomy and variation in morphology are discussed.
According to IUCN criteria there are 15 populations of A. villifera (NT), consisting of about 50 fragmented subpopulations, mainly at 900–1100 m a.s.l. (the highest point of Finland is 1324 m a.s.l.). Today the taxonomy seems to be settled: A. carpatica is considered as Central European and A. lanata as North American.
A. dioica and A. nordhageniana are treated here as species, as there is currently no evidence of hybrids between these two. A. dioica is ubiquitous all over the country up to the low oroarctic belt (upper limit at c. 900 m a.s.l.). There are 10 populations of A. nordhageniana (VU), consisting of about 35 fragmented subpopulations mainly in the middle oroarctic belt at 900–1100 m a.s.l. This taxon is endemic to northern Fennoscandia, and currently it seems that most of the populations are in Finland.
Three species are currently accepted in Finland of the closely related A. alpina group: A. alpina s.str. (rosette leaves hairy below, hairless above), A. canescens (hairy below and above) and A. porsildii (glabrous). A. alpina s.str. is very common in the low and middle oroarctic belts, A. canescens scattered. Intermediate individuals as to the hairiness occur in the joint distribution area. There are 10 populations of A. porsildii (NT), consisting of about 40 fragmented subpopulations mainly in the middle oroarctic belt at 900–1100 m a.s.l. The morphology of A. porsildii is variable. The stem is usually bright green, but in two populations individuals with a red stem are common.
Kämäräinen, H. 2012: Suomen nukeista yleensä ja Janakkalan (EH) ketonukista ja idännukista erityisesti. – Lutukka 28(2): 49–57.
The genus Androsace in Finland, with special attention to the populations in Janakkala, South Häme
Three rare species of the genus Androsace grow in Finland either native or as established neophytes: A. septentrionalis, A. elongata and A. filiformis. A. septentrionalis is protected and endangered (EN). In Finland, it is native only in the Åland Islands, but it is has been found in most provinces of the southern parts of the country, in 60 localities in all. Today, c. 12 established populations are known. A. filiformis is an eastern alien, with 5 or 6 established occurrences. A. elongata is known only from one locality in South Häme.
A. septentrionalis is known from Kuumola in Janakkala, South Häme, already for c. 80 years. The first collection was made in 1932. The origin is not known for certain. The stand on a railway embankment and a nearby gravel field is more than 50 m long. The species is monitored and its habitat is managed, so the future of the population seems safe. In 2009–2011 the population size was roughly estimated to exceed 1000 plants.
A. filiformis was met for the first time in Virala, Janakkala in 1963. Since then it has been annually seen around the same barn surrounded by cultivated fields. The population density has been as high as 1600 plants on a square meter. The species has probably arrived as early as 90 years ago, when low-grade Russian crop was imported as cattle forage, after a crop failure in Russia. The miller had his own fields close to the spot where the species is still growing. In 2010 the growing area was restricted to one square meter due to overgrowth. After the sides of the barn were ploughed up in the spring in 2011, the plant sprouted up in abundance over the whole ploughed area of c. 4 m × 20 m. The abundant seed bank will probably keep the population alive, if the soil by the barn is turned from time to time.
Ihamuotila, R. 2012: Huhtakurjenpolvi ja muita Nuuksion erikoisuuksia. – Lutukka 28(2): 59–63.
Small floristic notes from Nuuksio
Nuuksio is located 30 kilometres NW of Helsinki. The area is characterized by high granite rocks, herb-rich forests, rather small fields and about 90 lakes of different sizes.
Geranium bohemicum has been found in Nuuksio from time to time. In 1989, spruce branches were piled and burned in a clearfelling area. The burned sites were full of Geranium bohemicum in 1990, thereafter diminishing rapidly, which is typical to the plant. Another small forest cutting was done in a southern slope of a forested hill in 1993 and in 1994 some plants were flowering in the site in late September. In 2008 a lot of plants were in full flower in a harvested wheat field! During the very warm summer 2011 hundreds of plants flowered in a rather steep southern slope where forest had been cut in 2010.
Campanula cervicaria has rapidly reduced in number in southern Finland during the last 50 years. In Nuuksio two sites were earlier known to the author, but one has currently disappeared. The other one is located on a small meadow by a summer cottage north of Lake Sahajärvi. Around 50 flowering plants were found there in 2011 and a new place was found by a small road ca. 300 metres away, with 10 blooming specimens in early July.
Viscaria alpina is more or less rare in southern Finland. In Nuuksio it grows rather commonly on high granite rocks with a dense lichen cover. One site locates close to the author’s home Hista manor farm. In favourable years 50–100 plants are flowering there in early June. In Nuuksio there are also many other rocky areas inhabited by the plant, one locating in Nuuksio Natural Park by a path to Nuuksionpää cottage.
Earlier, a rather common weed, at least in Hista was Lamium amplexicaule. Later on it has almost disappeared, but is compensated by Veronica persica. The plant grew at first in a garden, but in 2009 it spread to cultivated fields. After harvesting plenty of it was found in the stubble of wheat and oil flax.
Other plants typical to Nuuksio are e.g. Leontodon hispidus, Trifolium aureum and Anthemis arvensis. The latter flourished by probably a thousand plants in a badly overwintered field of turnip rape in 2005. Trifolium incarnatum was found in late summer 2011 in a newly planted lawn, evidently from seeds in the grass seed mixture.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 28(2): 57–58.
Lotus corniculatus var. arenosus and Cymbalaria muralis are reported as new to the province of North Karelia. Both were found in the town of Joensuu. The former was growing in a lawn on several ares. The latter was introduced to a home garden as a weed in a seedling pot from a nursery garden. Also Cerastium glomeratum was introduced from the same nursery; this is the second record of this weedy species in the province. – Juhani Räsänen
Carline Thistle (Carlina vulgaris) was found in August 2011 in Kulla village on the island of Kimitoön, SW Finland (province of Varsinais-Suomi). The first record of this occurrence was made in 1960, and a later record was made in 1988. This is the only known locality of Carline Thistle at the moment in Finland outside the Åland Islands. Carline Thistle is classified as a vulnerable species in the Finnish red-list. – Panu Kunttu & Matts Cygnel
Summaries (in English)
Ryttäri, T., Enho, E., Helynranta, L., Kurtto, A., Nordman, K., Pykälä, J. & Uotila, P. 2012: Ruotsalaiset kasviretkellä Suomessa. — Lutukka 28(3): 67–80.
Excursion of the Swedish Botanical Society in southern Finland in 2012
Horppila, P. 2012: Havaintoja ahdinsammalesta Päijät-Hämeen järvissä. — Lutukka 28(3): 81–84.
Platyhypnidium riparioides in some lakes in South Häme, central S Finland
According to the Finnish water moss flora (Koponen et al. 1995), Platyhypnidium riparioides is a rare species met in sprig lakes with clear water and in eutrophic brooks. However, the species was found more or less accidentally in six localities in Sysmä, South Häme in 1995, 1997, 2011 and 2012 in quite different habitats. Two of the occurrences are located in eutrophicated inland bays of Lake Päijänne and three in sounds with streaming water between Lake Majutvesi and Päijänne. These are affected by the municipal sewage works of Sysmä and diffuse loading from agriculture. Another locality in Lake Joutsjärvi is loaded by fish farming, sewage and peat production. None of the localities is affected by spring waters, and the water in none of them is especially clear. Thus it seems like these characteristics are not essential to the species, and it can well grow also in lake waters containing humus or lakes eutrophicated by human activities. The species may be more common in Finland than known earlier, but it is hard to find in brownish waters containing humus or turbid for some other reason. The plants are found only by chance, as in this case with a lifted anchor or ice fishing lure.
Helle, K. 2012: Täsmähoidolla palkitsevia tuloksia uhanalaisen ketokatkeron esiintymillä. — Lutukka 28(3): 88–94.
Rewarding results in maintainance of the endangered Gentianella campestris
The endangered Gentianella campestris is one of the species which have suffered because of overgrowing of seminatural habitats. Good results have been obtained by proper timing and proper measures in maintaining its populations. Experience is here presented from three localities in South Häme, central S Finland, where the species has increased both in terms of abundance and area.
The basic clearing of the habitats was timed in late August to be able to find all possible first year plants. Shading trees were cut little by little to increase the light and decrease the amount of litter. Abandoned seminatural habitats easily become covered by mosses. Moss carpets were removed with a rake – and even with a fork to avoid damaging the species taken care of. This was made to simulate the effects of pasturing and to produce open patches for seeds and spores to germinate.
Scything and raking were made in turn of July and August to let seed of annual species ripen. Gentianella campestris was left untouched, and the colonies were weeded to give the species a better competitive position. Scythed hay and other waste were carried away from the patches.
It turned out that Gentianella campestris flowered often already during the first growing season. Variation in the effective temperature sum of the previous year caused much variation in the number of plants between different years.
It was very rewarding to participants of the maintainance work to see the endangered species thrive so well after the effort.
Floristic notes — Lutukka 28(3): 94–95.
Orchis militaris is reported from Mäkiluoto island by the south coast of Finland. The island is a military fortress with no public entrance. The species is endangered in Finland, and it has earlier been found only nine times – eight of them in the 1980s or later. – Kalevi Hiironniemi
Summaries (in English)
Alho, R., Heino, S., Laine, K., Laine, U. & Nurmi, J. 2012: Liuskalääte (Serratula tinctoria L.), maalle uusi putkilokasvi Varsinais-Suomessa. — Lutukka 28(4): 99–102.
Serratula tinctoria L., a new vascular plant for Finland
Saw-wort (Serratula tinctoria L.), a new flowering plant for Finland, was found in June 2012 from Uusikaupunki, SW part of the country (biogeographical province of Varsinais-Suomi). The occurrence consisted of almost 20 plants flowering profusely in July – August, and 5–6 sterile rosettes. The locality is situated ca. 15 km from the town center in a rural area, on a small stony meadow patch surrounded by fields. The companions include mainly native forest and meadow plants and a few archaeophytes. As the locality is modified by man, the saw-wort must be considered as an alien plant in Finland, most probably as an archaeophyte. The closest occurrences are ca. 200 km away in Uppland, Sweden and in Hiiumaa, Estonia. In the Nordic countries the saw-wort is a declining species and classified as endangered or near threatened.
Ahponen, H. & Lumiaro, R. 2012: Luonnonkukkien päivä edisti luonnonkasvien suojelua tienpidossa. — Lutukka 28(4): 103–104.
The Nordic Day of Wild Flowers 2012 in Finland
The Day of Wild Flowers was held on June 17th 2010 in all Nordic countries. In Finland 110 guided field excursions were organized all over the country with ca. 1870 participants. In 2012 special attention was paid on the importance of the time of mowing of roadsides for biodiversity and many threatened plants and insects on them, and a special excursion for media was arranged.
Jutila, H. 2012: Kasviharrastajat Hankoniemellä. — Lutukka 28(4): 105–113.
Annual meeting of Finnish botanists and conservation authorities in 2012
Finnish botanists visited sites of vulnerable vascular plants on Cape Hankoniemi during 10.–12.8.2012. In Lappohja harbour the ballast plants and particularly the largest population of Medicago falcata in Finland were visited. In Gåsörsudden at the base of Cape Tulliniemi the rarest taxon was the endangered Armeria maritima ssp. intermedia, and a lot of other seashore species were detected among them the vulnerable Galium verum and Crambe maritima. The dunes in Cape Tulliniemi provide a good habitat for Salsola kali, Carex arenaria and Festuca polesica on the shoreside and for Zostera marina on the seaside, all species listed in the Red Data Book of 2010. The invasive exotic species, Rosa rugosa, had been fought in a removal project in the Furuviken nature conservation area, where we were lucky to observe Sphingonotus caerulans, an endangered grasshopper, and the near threatened Chimaphila umbellata. At the end of the day we shortly visited a spring in Björkkulla, were the endangered Carex paniculata was growing.
In Sunday’s seminar 12.8. the participants had a possibility to present their observations of threatened plant species in different biogeographical provinces of Finland. Tvärminne provides a biodiversity hot spot at the Gulf of Finland, of which we had a glimpse on the nature trail. Among the observed rare or otherwise interesting species were Primula veris, Melampyrum nemorosum, Campanula trachelium, Polygonatum multiflorum, Satureja vulgaris, Viola mirabilis, Allium scorodoprasum, A. oleraceum, Asplenium trichomanes, A. septentrionale, Cotoneaster integerrimus, Galium verum and Holcus lanatus. Högsand in Lappohja was again a habitat for many dune species, among them the endangered Ammophila arenaria.
The excursion was guided by Terhi Ryttäri from the Finnish Environment Institute, Tiina Kanerva from the Finnish Forest Service and Henry Väre from the Finnish Museum of Natural History.
Kääntönen, M. 2012: Koirankieli Valkeakosken Sääksmäellä (EH). — Lutukka 28(4): 114–118.
Cynoglossum officinale in Sääksmäki, Valkeakoski, S Finland
Records of Cynoglossum officinale in the old cultural area of Sääksmäki (Valkeakoski, biogeographical province of South Häme) are known from 1872 onwards. Many of them are concentrated in Huittula village, and especially around the church and parsonage, and in Kelhi village. Based mainly on the summations made in the 1990s, the five known localities were surveyed in 2012. The counted numbers were 73 fertile plants and 102 sterile rosettes. The species is threatened both by overgrowing and too intensive clearing of the habitats. Clearing is a threat also to several other vascular plant species of old cultural habitats, some of which are already extinct in Sääksmäki. Preserving Cynoglossum officinale requires monitoring and management, because the species is a weak competitor. Also e.g. the private yard areas in Huittula ought to be studied.
Kämäräinen, H. 2012: Masmaloiden moninaisuutta – havaintoja Porin Reposaaresta ja Kouvolan Kaipiaisista. — Lutukka 28(4): 122–126.
Findings of Anthyllis vulneraria from Pori and Kouvola, southern Finland
Anthyllis vulneraria was first met in Reposaari, Pori (biogeographical province of Satakunta) in 1872. Records or specimens probably belonging to ssp. carpatica were made at least in the 1920’s and 1940’s. During the construction of the holiday home fare in 2008 also soil in the old ballast field was partly excavated. This seems to have awoken the seed bank, as the plant was found rather abundantly on ca. 50 square meters in July 2012. They seemed to represent var. pseudovulneraria, but the determination has not been verified so far because of taxonomical difficulties in the genus.
Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. polyphylla grows along Highway 6 in Kaipiainen, Kouvola (prov. South Karelia). Ditch slopes at both sides of the road are covered by very dense colonies along a distance of several hundred meters. In the native occurrencies the plants in Finland have patent hairs at the basal parts of the stem, and introduced plants are usually glabrous. In this population, however, the plants are hairy with tightly appressed hairs. The first record of the species in this locality was made by the near-by railway, first records from the roadside were made in 1980.
Floristic notes — Lutukka 28(4): 118–121
Althaea officinalis was found as a casual introduction in a sawdust heap in Barösund, Inkoo (biogeographical province of Uusimaa). This ornamental has very rarely been recorded outside gardens in Finland. — Kurt Nordman
Sium latifolium is reported from Helsinki (Uusimaa), where it was found in a small seashore pond. The species is critically endangered in Finland and its only known extant occurrencies are situated in a very limited area in the SE part of the country. The origin of the newly found population is possibly in Estonia, at the opposite site of the Gulf of Finland. — Risto Ihamuotila
Arabianranta is a new urban district in Helsinki at the mouth of Vantaanjoki river. The area has mainly been constructed on earth filling. From urban ecological point of view, the result may be regarded as a diverse ”urban wilderness”. In addition to several ruderal species, some water and shore plants can be found at a pond near the southern end of the area. Dense stands of Lythrum portula are growing at the waterside. After rain these stands remain under water, otherwise mostly on the shore. An attractive, about 2 m wide stand of flowering Mentha aquatica var. aquatica could be seen on the shore. The species is rare, and it has not been seen in the province of Uusimaa since 1950s. Lythrum portula has not been found in Helsinki since 1992. Both plants are endangered in Finland (category VU). — Pertti Ranta
Summaries (in English)
Vilpa, E. 2011: Oulunsalon Varjakansaaren kasvisto. – Lutukka 27(1): 3–13.
Flora of Island Varjakansaari in Oulunsalo, North Ostrobothnia, Finland
Island Varjakansaari is situated in the Bothnian Bay N of the Natura 2000 area around Bay Akionlahti, c. 6 km W from the market place of Oulu town. The bedrock lies deep below the silt- and sandstones of the Muhos formation and the soil covering it. The land upheaval is 8–9 mm a year. The highest points of the island rose up from the sea in the 1400s and are now c. 5 m above the sea level. Today, the dimensions of the island are c. 2 200 m × 700 m. The sea water around the island is brackish, with not more than 2–3 ‰ of salt.
The biggest sawmill in the Nordic countries was run on the island in 1900–1928. It gave work to 720 employees. The county architect Harald Andersin designed elegant buildings for the sawmill. Part of them have later been destroyed, some are still in use slightly restored. The municipality of Oulunsalo is planning a natural and cultural tourist resort covering the island and the neighbouring Cape Varjakanniemi in a project supported by the EU.
The vegetation of the island is mainly forest, meadow and aquatic vegetation. The urban flora is strongly diminishing. The aquatic and shoreline flora is well preserved. This article gives an annotated list of all vascular plant taxa met on the island in 2009 and 2010. The endemic Baltic Sea species Deschampsia bottnica, Euphrasia bottnica and Alisma wahlenbergii belong to the flora. The latter one is a directive species of the EU, and Finland has the responsibility of its survival. Another interesting group of the shore meadow plants is the so called Primula sibirica group. P. nutans ssp. finmarchica (P. sibirica) is the nominal species of the group, the other members being e.g. Carex halophila, C. mackenziei, C. paleacea, Odontites litoralis ssp. litoralis and Sonchus arvensis ssp. maritima. These taxa have probably invaded the area from the Arctic Sea and the White Sea coasts. Primula nutans is classified as endangered in Finland.
Räsänen, J. 2011: Voikukkien maailmasta. – Lutukka 27(1): 14–16.
Stories of some problems in the identification and nomenclature of Taraxacum, solved by field observations and cultivation, during long-lastin examination of herbaria and literature – and by night-time thinking.
Enho, E. & Kypärä, T. 2011: Idän tuliaisia ja kämmeköitä. – Lutukka 27(1): 26–29.
Annual meeting of Finnish botanists and conservation authorities in 2010
The annual meeting of Finnish botanists and conservation authorities was arranged in SE Finland on 14.–15. August 2010. The seminar was held at Päiväranta conference centre in Imatra. Most of the time was used for excursions to interesting localities in Taipalsaari, Lappeenranta and Imatra. A wide range of habitats was seen: esker terrain, lime pits, an airport, an old timber depot, a calcareous pine heath and an old cultural environment. The excursions were guided by Juha Jantunen from the South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 27(1): 13.
A native population of Viola uliginosa at Tampere (South Häme) was destroyed in the mid-1970s due to building. Some plants were transplanted to four places. The only living progeny of the original population is located in the botanic gardens at Oulu and Joensuu. – Matti Kääntönen
Summaries (in English)
Salmia, A. 2011: Kuolanpioni on kasvimaantieteellisesti ja evolutiivisesti mielenkiintoinen laji. – Lutukka 27(2): 35–42.
Biogeography and evolution of Paeonia anomala (Paeoniaceae), a review
Hong (2010) has recently made a comprehensive synopsis of peonies focusing his work on taxonomy and biogeography. He gives detailed descriptions of the morphology and field work of the Paeonia anomala complex.
Paeonia anomala has a wide distribution area in Eurasia. The species has also been collected by Finnish researches to Finnish herbaria (29 specimens in H) from the Kola Peninsula during 1863–1913.The examination of these specimens showed all the typical morphological characters given by Hong (2010). The species is now very rare and is threatened in the Kola Peninsula (Andreev & Uotila 1998).
According to the taxonomic revision of the Paeonia anomala complex (Hong & Pan 2004) the species P. anomala contains two subspecies ssp. anomala and ssp. veitchii. Morphologically they are very similar. The main difference between the subspecies is that in ssp. anomala flowers are solitary and in ssp. veitchii there are usually 2–4 flowers on a stem. Molecular phylogenetic evidence (Pan et al. 2007) for the origin of ssp. anomala indicated however that it is a diploid hybrid originated from a cross between ssp. veitchii and P. lactiflora. The combination of the two genomes has probably allowed ssp. anomala to adapt to wide geographic regions quite different from its parents.
Kunttu, P. & Rivasto, S.-M. 2011: Neidonkielen esiintyminen Dragsfjärdin Taalintehtaalla. – Lutukka 27(2): 43–46.
An abundant occurrence of the Viper’s bugloss (Echium vulgare) in Dalsbruk, SW Finland
The occurrence of the Viper’s bugloss (or Blueweed) in the village of Dalsbruk is one of the most prolific in Finland. Dalsbruk is situated in the island of Kimitoön, southwest Finland (biogeographical province of Finland proper). Inventories of the distribution and abundance of the Viper’s bugloss were carried out in the summer 2010. Altogether 1689 individuals were found, and the covered area was 75 hectares. Only 3 % of these individuals grew on rocky and dry fields, the rest of them were found on roadsides and yards. The amount of occurrences seems to be higher than in 1991 when a previous inventory was carried out.
The first reliable record of the Viper’s bugloss in Dalsbruk was made in 1919, but likely the history is notably longer because the species was spread by ballast and there was an active ship traffic between Dalsbuk and Stockholm since 1686 when the ironworks were established in Dalsbruk. The species was characterized as prolific in a study of the vascular plants in Dalsbruk in the 1950s and 1960s.
Three species of the Finnish red-listed micro moths live in Dalsbruk, all of these are dependent on the Viper’s bugloss: Ethmia terminella (CR), Cynaeda dentali (EN) and Tinagma ocnerostomellum (NT). The occurrences of these micro moth species in Finland are concentrated especially to Dalsbruk.
Issakainen, J., Heinonen, M.-L. & Heinonen, P. 2011: Tähtisilkkiyrtti (Asclepias speciosa) tulokkaana Paraisilla. – Lutukka 27(2): 47–51.
Occurrency of showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa), a new alien, in Parainen, SW Finland
Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) is reported as an occasional, unintentionally introduced species from Parainen, SW Finland. The dispersion route could not be ascertained. General information on the genus Asclepias is given.
Kurtto, A. & Helynranta, L. 2011: Helsingin kasveja 6. Piperin puiston erikoisuudet ja lännenpalsami. – Lutukka 27(2): 52–57.
Vascular plants of Helsinki 6. Rarities of Suomenlinna Sea Fortress, and Orange Balsam, Impatiens capensis
Suomenlinna, a famous maritime fortress and Unesco World Heritage Site located off the coast of Helsinki, harbours a remarkably rich wild vascular flora consisting of many historical elements, the most notable of which are numerous Russian polemochores and a myriad of plants of dry meadows. The polemochores include species which are rare or very rare in Finland: Alchemilla hirsuticaulis, A. semilunaris, Asperugo procumbens, Carex praecox, Epilobium roseum, Lappula squarrosa, Lithospermum arvense, Medicago falcata and Rumex confertus. In recent decades, the flora has been enriched with, at least, the anemochorously dispersed Epilobium adenocaulon, E. ciliatum, Erigeron canadense and Senecio viscosus, as well as with Impatiens parviflora, Rorippa sylvestris, Alliaria petiolata, Erucastrum gallicum and Veronica persica, brought in with soil from the continent, and with Oxalis fontana and Impatiens glandulifera escaped from local gardens.
The Piper Park on the island of Susisaari of Suomenlinna is a floristically peculiar site. The sole Finnish populations of both Glyceria striata, a native of North America, and G. declinata, a native of W. and C. Europe, are known from there, probably as lawn seed immigrants. In 2010, Ceratophyllum submersum appeared abundantly in the artificial pond of the park thus adding only just the fourth site to its Finnish distribution.
In 2010, Impatiens capensis, a native of North America, was discovered as naturalized in a black alder grove in eastern Helsinki. The background of the occurrence is not known, but the plant may have been sown at the site from seeds brought from the Lohja – Karjalohja area in S.W. Finland, where the species originates from a single sowing in 1949 and is nowadays widespread on shores of the Lohjanjärvi lake.
Lampinen, R. & Lahti, T. 2011: Uusi kasviatlaksen vuosiversio, Kasviatlas 2010. – Lutukka 27(2): 58–60.
Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Finland, version 2010
The new version of the atlas has been published at www.luomus.fi/kasviatlas (in Finnish).
Floristic notes – Lutukka 27(2): 60–61.
A casual occurrence on Lindernia procumbens is described from a nursery in Valkeakoski, South Häme, as the first record of this southeast and central European species in Finland. The plants may have arrived from some Dutch or German nursery with imported conifers. – Jari Särkkä
Summaries (in English)
Uotila, P. 2011: Vihannesportulakat Suomessa. – Lutukka 27(3): 67–73.
Portulaca oleracea aggr. in Finland
Portulaca oleracea aggr. (Portulacaceae) contains ca. 20 microspecies, of which six (P. granulatostellulata, P. nitida, P. oleracea s.str., P. papillatostellulata, P. sativa and P. trituberculata) were found when specimens from Finland were revised by A. Danin. All of them represent casual or for several years established aliens, except for P. sativa, only rarely cultivated. Short descriptions of and a key to the Finnish taxa are provided.
Ranta, P. & Siitonen, M. 2011: Kuinka käy luhtaorvokin? – Lutukka 27(3): 74–87.
The state of an endangered species: Viola uliginosa in Finland
Viola uliginosa is a European plant with its main distribution east of the present border of the European Union. It is regarded as threatened in most of the area. In Finland it is endangered (EN) and under strict protection.
In Finland, the species was found in 1851 in Vihti, only 42 years after it was first described in Poland. In the 1800s, it was found in the present-day Sastamala, Hyvinkää, Hämeenlinna and Hammarland. Of these localities, Vihti (Varsinais-Suomi) and Sastamala (Satakunta) still remain. In the 1940s, 14 localities were known at the same time, which is the highest number. Since then, the number decreased to be only five in 2011. The newest and northernmost locality was found in 1999 in Tohmajärvi (North Karelia). The causes of the decline are variable like construction of railways and roads, but too often the reason has been in poor environmental administration, although the status of the species would have been well known. The losses of the localities in Hammarland, Tampere, Mäntsälä and Vantaa have to be included in this category. The strongest occurrences in Finland today are in Hanko (Uusimaa) and Tohmajärvi, with thousands of plants.
The conservation of the species is challenging for several reasons. Firstly, it is disturbance dependent and only survives if the disturbance continues. The main disturbance is flooding. Secondly, wetland habitats typical to the species have been destroyed throughout its range, mostly in the west. Thirdly, Viola uliginosa is not an ANNEX IV species under the EU Habitats directive, which in practice has caused insufficient resources for protection. This is the case for example in Finland. The risk of extinction of Viola uliginosa in Finland is not imminent, but a new, more radical and dynamic conservation approach is clearly needed to maintain the plant in Finland. The first conservation programme for the species in Finland is under preparation in 2011.
Kääntönen, M. 2011: Tähkämaitikan Valkeakosken Sääksmäen (EH) kasvupaikkojen seurannasta. – Lutukka 27(3): 88–94.
Monitoring of disjunct populations of Melampyrum cristatum in Valkeakoski, South Finland
The main distribution of the vulnerable (VU) Melampyrum cristatum in Finland is in the SW archipelago and near-by coastal areas. The few rare and disjunct inland occurrences in Valkeakoski (Sääksmäki), South Häme, have been monitored and managed since 1981. The management has included grazing by sheep, mowing, clearing and even burning. Especially in Ritvala – a locality of special cultural value – the species seems to have managed relatively well, though annual fluctuations in the population size have been extensive. Another locality at Cape Annilanniemi, known from the late 1800s, is at the risk of extinction after a rapid decline, in lack of appropriate management measures.
Seaching the occurrences W of the Lake Vanajanselkä has almost been like a detective story. Earlier known localities have not been found anymore and some populations seem to have temporarily (?) disappeared – but also one new tiny population has been uncovered. In 2011, the total counted number of Melampyrum cristatum plants in all the known localities in Valkeakoski was 363.
Summaries (in English)
Hallman, J. 2011: Kasviharrastajat Ahvenanmaan kasviparatiisissa. – Lutukka 27(4): 99–104.
Annual meeting of Finnish botanists and conservation authorities in 2011
The annual meeting of Finnish botanists and conservation authorities was arranged in Åland 9.–12. June 2011. The seminar was held at Övernäsgården in Mariehamn. Most of the time was used for excursions to interesting localities in the municipalities of Mariehamn, Lemland, Jomala, Sund and Vårdö. A lot of rare and threatened plants and a wide range of habitats like herb rich forests, pollard meadows, Baltic coastal meadows, seminatural dry grasslands and old natural forest were seen. The excursions were guided by Carl-Adam and Eeva Hæggström.
Uotila, P. 2011: Keltaohdake Suomessa. – Lutukka 27(4): 105–115.
Cirsium oleraceum in Finland
Cirsium oleraceum is known from one obviously indigenous locality in Åland Islands in a spring-fed rich forest slope and along ca. 700 m long ditch margin between the forest and a cultivated field. Based on this population, the species has been classified as vulnerable in Finland. Other findings from Finland are clearly introduced but often established for years or decades. There are many polemochorous finds from harbour places of the Bothnian Bay and war time camps. Some populations, well established along moist meadows, field margins, ditches, lake shores and sparse woods, have their origin in sowing of seeds by some amateur botanists interested in rare plants, or they have escaped from gardens. Several recent findings are from banks of new highways, and from places where imported Russian and Baltic timber has been stored.
Salmia, A. 2011: Uhanalainen sarjatalvikki kirjallisuudessa ja Tammelan Kaukolanharjulla. – Lutukka 27(4): 116–122.
The endangered Chimaphila umbellata – a review
Chimaphila umbellata is an evergreen dwarf shrub. It is widely distributed mainly over the northern parts of Eurasia and North America. In Fennoscandia, it grows in conifer forests. It is a continental plant and prefers open sunny Scots pine forest. It is a weak competitor against Vaccinium myrtillus and Picea abies. It flowers in July and produces large amount of tiny seeds in September. The species has become endangered (EN) in Sweden and Norway and is classified as near threatened (NT) in Finland and Denmark. In one of its habitats in Finland (Kaukolanharju, Tammela municipality in South Häme) it has been known for over 150 years. Most of the more than 200 shoots found in 2011 were on the warm SW side of the esker. The habitat may be threatened due to overgrowing by P. abies and V. myrtillus.
Kämäräinen, H. 2011: Kesäretket Lahden ratapihalle kannattavat edelleen. – Lutukka 27(4): 123–125.
Additions to the flora of the railway yard at Lahti, south Finland
Some additions and updates are given to the railway yard flora of Lahti town (Kämäräinen 2010). Two new species – Filago arvensis and Potentilla thuringiaca – were recorded, whereas Lappula squarrosa and Trifolium campestre seem to have disappeared.
Floristic notes – Lutukka 27(4): 126.
Elytrigia juncea ssp. boreali-atlantica was found in Täcktom, Hanko in 2011, as new to the mainland of Finland and the biogeographical province of Uusimaa. It was growing as a thin colony in c. one hundred square meters on the seaward side of a seashore dune, accompanied by Ammophila arenaria and the hybrid E. juncea × Elymus (Elytrigia) repens. The hybrid was found in Hanko already in 1877, as a native introduction independent of the parental species. The first record of E. juncea ssp. boreali-atlantica was made in Finland in 1939. The species has been classified as vulnerable (VU) in Finland. – Terhi Ryttäri & Henry Väre